지속가능한 물질관리를 위한 자원순환정책 방안

Title
지속가능한 물질관리를 위한 자원순환정책 방안
Authors
김광임
Co-Author
최진석; 임현곤
Issue Date
2006-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2006-06
Page
121 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19245
Language
한국어
Keywords
Recycling (Waste, etc.)- Korea (Republic of)
Abstract
Reforming Resource Circulation Policy for Sustainable Material Management The amount of waste has increased as people consume more goods in growing economy. Increase of waste contaminated environment. In order to solve environmental problems caused by increase of waste, policies regarding recycling and reducing waste have been developed and implemented. Even though these recycling policies achieved great success, the quantity of waste is still rising. Thus, the paradigm shift in waste policies has been discussed to reduce waste generation among OECD countries. The direction of paradigm shift is resource saving and material circulation. Since recycling rate of waste in Korea is already high, it would be difficult to increase recycling rate further under current waste management policy scheme. Also, low quality recycling rather than high quality recycling for construction waste is prevalent. Resource productivity of direct material input (GDP/DMI) is 1,000 thousand won/ton in 2000. This is lower than that of average EU countries (1,242 thousand won/ton) and is 1/3 of that of Japan (2,937thousand won/ton). This implies that consumption of material is large compared to economic production which is shown as GDP. Considering such trends, it is necessary to increase resource productivity by promoting material circulation and by saving resource and material input for the shortage of resource. Therefore, it is necessary to shift the paradigm of waste management contrary to current recycling policies in order to increase value of waste as resource and circulation of resources. The objective of this research is to evaluate current waste recycling policies in terms of material management and to reform resource circulation policy for sustainable material management. Based on the evaluation of recycling policies in terms of material circulation found from this research, policy remedies are suggested as follows. 1) Reform of Waste Management Policies First of all, circulation of plastic packaging material need to be increased. The use of plastics among packaging materials is rapidly replacing recyclable packaging materials such as glass and metal. Such a trend is expected to be accelerated further. Thus, the policies to promote recovery of plastic materials are necessary. Secondly, target recycling rate for certain waste material should be set based on types of materials and recycling methods considering their characteristics, recycling technology and environmental impacts. Materials have different characteristics, so applicable recycling methods are different. Thus, more elaborated recycling targets for different material can enhance the value of waste resources and recovered materials. For example, recycling target for packaging waste under the EPR is set as total quantity without differentiating recycling methods, such as recovery of raw material or energy. Thirdly, life cycle of packaging materials should be analyzed to reduce the amount of waste. Through life cycle analysis of raw material input, production, consumption, disposal and circulation process, the detailed information should be provided on the step where we can reduce material consumption and increase material circulation. Fourthly, policy to promote circulation of disposable goods (containers and plates) should be strengthened. Plastic Material of disposable goods is replaced with paper material under the regulation to prevent pollution of landfill or incineration of plastics. However, circulation of waste disposable goods is little known. Thus, separate disposal and recycling status of waste disposable goods (containers) after use should be investigated and recycling policies should be established. Fifthly, recycling rate and method of construction and demolition (C&D) waste should be redefined. Recycling method of C&D waste includes use of C&D waste as cover soil of landfill site, which occupies 90 percent of C&D waste recycling currently. Recycling targets have to be set for various recycling methods in order to increase high quality recycling rather than low quality recycling of C&D waste such as cover soil. For last, policy to encourage material replacement for home electronics should be strengthened. Material saving and circulation is ought to be achieved through the change of material and structure in home electronics. 2) Policy for Consumption Pattern Change First of all, environment friendly products consumption policy should be redirected from promoting purchase of products to increase circulation of resources and to reduce material consumption. Secondly, relationship between environment friendly consumption policy and resource recycling policy should be evaluated. In other words, the policy to promote the consumption and production of environment friendly goods is related to recycling policy in terms of resource circulation and material circulation. The relationship need to be evaluated in order to increase effectiveness and to avoid contradiction of the policies. Also, a policy to change consumption pattern of consumers needs to be developed and implemented. 3) Policy for Production and Distribution Sectors Pattern of material consumption should be examined to strengthen policy for production and distribution sectors. Change of material type and structure, design of products should be promoted since it is effective to save and recycle resources. Participation of distribution businesses into resource circulation precess should be encouraged, since they are gradually taking important portion in the economy. Consequently, paradigm of resource circulation policy should be shifted from waste circulation after disposal to the direction of material circulation. These concept should be reflected in not only environmental policy but also non-environmental policy such as construction and industrial policies.

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