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http://library.kei.re.kr/dmme/img/001/003/001/[03_E]WO-02եǴĬXΔƥ(\)1.pdf;\m/This study, connected to the previous research in 2002, was carried out to prove debates on what is the level of environmental impacts of golf course operation with scientific data. The goals of the study were to investigate repeatedly benthic invertebrates to confirm the results obtained from the previous study, and to provide diminishing measures in construction and operation of a golf course as well as a policy alternative on golf course siting through the investigation of terrestrial ecosystem. Because the study sites of the golf courses were confined to the forests of Gyoung-gi province, the results of the study may not be applied to golf courses in other provinces. However, similar level and tendency of the results on ecological effects of the golf courses that have been constructed in the mountain forests can be expected. Compared to the previous data, more species and individuals of benthic invertebrates were found at three golf courses in the present study except at the site of C2 and Cc. According to the classified groups, the order Diptera which is generally tolerant to organic water environment showed high individual biomass. Although there were some differences in species composition, the number of species and individual biomass, the function of communities showed no distinct differences. According to effects of golf course discharge in each investigation site, benthic invertebrates in each site could be divided to three groups. A group that is similar to the Bangtae river (representing clean natural lotic system) included the control and reserve site of golf course A, upper stream of golf course B, and control site of golf course C which are unaffected by discharge from golf courses. Another group that is similar to the Gyoungan river (representing polluted urban lotic system)included discharge sites of golf courses D, E, F, H, and C1 which have been highly affected by contamination of organic matter. The third group, where the habitats of benthic species have been slowly contaminated, does not belong to both groups, which contain discharge sites of golf courses,A, B, C, and G, and might have chances of ecological restoration. It would be obvious that aquatic ecosystem has been deteriorated by cumulative effects of nutrient sources discharged from golf courses. The habitat deteroration would simplify species diversity and replace the species living in uncontaminated water with ones living in contaminated environment. The cause of deterioration may be continuous discharge of the organic material, such as chemical fertilizer and pesticide, from golf courses. The riverbed near the final discharge of the golf course was heavily covered with algae tolerant in organically contaminated water. The data of water quality showed some consistency with the above results, which are the effects of organic material. The undesirable effect on aquatic ecosystem by golf course operation, therefore, would be inevitable and irreversible if golf courses continue to be developed in valley water basin without specific measures. The effect on terrestrial ecosystem would be loss of wildlife habitats and nutrients, and fragmentation and hollow of ecosystem due to the elimination of vegetation. An improper restoration of slopes and a night game also reduce wildlife habitats around the golf course. The data of composition of insect species indicate that their habitat could be reduced approximately 20% after a golf course is developed. To avoid or reduce those undesirable effects, first of all, it needs to be cautious for a developer to select sites for golf courses. A good aquatic ecosystem with clean water source should not be disturb<(ed. The area with well preserved vegetation needs to be conserved. Overcrowded golf courses should be avoided to prevent both discontinuity of terrestrial ecosystem and contamination of aquatic ecosystem. If a proper site for golf course development is decided, plans to reduce ecological damages during construction and operation should be incorporated in golf course design and managed during operation. Patches and buffer strips need to be placed as many as possible to maintain ecological functions in the golf course. They ought to be connected and built large enough to avoid edge effects on the central habitat of the patches. A reservior should be built to collect initial rainfall and to prevent from contaminating ponds and streams. An ecologically sustainable golf course can be developed when developers, designer, and golfers take care of ecosystem together. The owner's will is one of the most important factors to manage both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems because the level of ecological impact is various among golf courses, regardless of duration of golf course operation. One can enjoy beauty of landscape as well as mystery of natural ecosystem in an extensively managed land, such as a golf course.K
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