하구·석호 육해전이수역 통합환경관리방안연구

Title
하구·석호 육해전이수역 통합환경관리방안연구
Authors
이창희
Co-Author
강대석; 남정호; 이병국; 유혜진
Issue Date
2001-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원,한국해양수산개발원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2001-06
Page
xx, 368p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19051
Language
한국어
Keywords
Marine pollution- Environmental aspects
Abstract
Estuaries and coastal lagoons (estuarine environments) are typical transitional ecosystems between land and sea, where sea water is mixed with fresh water. It is well known that estuarine environments are very valuable ecosystems because of their unique ecological functions and geographical features, as well as socioeconomic values. These precious estuaries have, however, have become severely deteriorated and damaged by human activities through watersheds and intensive coastal developments. In this respect, this study aims to develop integrated management strategies for protection, improvement, and restoration of estuarine environments that would support sustainable uses of those precious natural resources. 1. Management Strategies for Estuaries An assessment of environmental and socioeconomic conditions of 17 major estuaries in Korea indicated that most large estuaries have been extensively developed with poor environmental quality. Habitat losses were the major problem facing estuarine environments in Korea. It was estimated that about 30% of current estuarine habitats would be lost in next 10 years. Water qualities in coastal reservoirs formed by river-mouth dikes were also deteriorating, with a water quality of grade IV in terms of COD. Nutrient concentrations in coastal waters including the reservoirs exceeded the eutrophic level that causes harmful algal blooms. It was also predicted that nutrient concentrations in the coastal waters would consistently increase unless special nutrient reduction measures were implemented promptly. Estuary management capacities and efforts, however, seemed to be very limited mainly due to fragmented management systems, sectoral responsibilities and roles, and after-treatment management approaches. Two major management problems identified were the lack of strategies to protect the integrity of estuaries from increasing development and the lack of knowledge and information basis to establish sound management strategies. A new management framework based on integrated watershed approaches, therefore, is necessary to overcome those problems. Developed countries, including the USA, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Japan, recognized the importance of estuaries early, and have established various statutory or non-statutory estuary programs to protect, improve, and restore estuaries. A common feature found in the estuary programs of those countries was that all the estuary management programs adopted a watershed concept characterized by integrated, incremental, and iterative approaches. Recently, estuary management has taken more aggressive tactics. For example, the USA enacted the 'Estuary Restoration Act of 2000' and established an ambitious plan to restore 4,000km2 of estuarine habitats by the year 2010. This study has developed estuarine environmental management strategies based on the assessment results on environmental and socioeconomic conditions of estuarine regions and experiences of other countries in estuary management. The 'creation of diverse, abundant, and productive estuaries' and 3I(Integrated, Incremental, and Iterative) approaches were suggested to pursue the long-term vision. Furthermore, estuary management targets and associated implementation measures were identified for four major management sectors: protection and conservation of valuable estuaries, improvement of deteriorated environmental conditions, restoration of estuarine habitats, and establishment of watershed-based estuary management systems. (Figure) Since environmental and socioeconomic conditions of individual estuaries are quite different, the strategies need to be estuary-specific. In the management perspectives, therefore, 17 estuaries were classified into several different management types using the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) evaluation technique. The Sumjin River Estuary, one of a few major natural estuaries left in Korea, was selected as a demonstration site for its ecological value using an energy evaluation method and potential for development of site-specific management strategy and because it was classified in the improvement-restoration category by the PSR evaluation. 2. Management Strategies for Coastal Lagoons Livestock breeding and non-point pollution sources accounted for most pollutant inputs of the seven selected coastal lagoons in the east coast of Korea. Water qualities in most lagoons, except for Songji-Ho, were in deteriorated conditions in terms of both organic materials and nutrients. Hwajinpo-Ho and Kyungpo-Ho showed the worst water quality of all the sites. Despite their important ecological and geographical value, most coastal lagoons have been seriously deteriorated due to changes in lake morphology as a result of reclamation and man-made structures around lakes, destruction of ecosystems, and artificial modification of watershed area and waterways. The management of the coastal lagoons usually follows general lake or reservoir management frameworks without any special consideration. The lagoons have, therefore, management problems such as fragmented management authorities among central and local government agencies and overlapping or unclear roles and responsibilities among the agencies. For example, there are no practical and appropriate coordination processes and systems to protect natural coastal lagoons from development if local governments choose to develop. The management of the coastal lagoons with unique environmental characteristics and ecological and landscape values should focus on how those values can be maintained and protected. Lagoons were classified using the PSR evaluation technique with a focus on protection, improvement, and restoration perspectives. The PSR evaluation showed that the coastal lagoons with a high conservation value, such as Songji-Ho, need the central government's efforts because they are vulnerable to physical alterations by local development projects and their landscape and geographical values are prone to degradation by human activities. For the lagoons that have been used for other purposes, such Chungchho-Ho which has been used as a port, the management must focus on rational use with a priority on water quality improvement. In addition, multiple management measures including conservation, improvement, and restoration are needed for those lagoons under deterioration. In terms of environmental management, coastal lagoons should not be considered merely as one of the 18,000 lakes or reservoirs in Korea, but as a unique category. At least Songji-Ho and Hwajinpo-Ho need to be managed by the central government by designating them as 'Natural Ecosystem Conservation Areas' or 'Designated Lakes'. To balance development and conservation from increasing development pressures, institutional assessment systems such as environmental impact assessment and preliminary environmental evaluation need to be strengthened. Research and monitoring on the functions and values of coastal lagoons, education and public awareness campaigns on the importance of the lagoons, and support for the activities of nongovernmental environmental organizations to conserve the lagoons are also needed. This study found that regardless of their ecological value, estuaries and coastal lagoons in Korea have deteriorated due to a lack of appropriate management systems and imprudent development and utilization. Furthermore, considering the fact that destruction of the estuaries has been caused by national development projects, the study urges the Korean government to change its development-oriented policies on estuaries and coastal lagoons to more sustainable ones so that future generations may enjoy the benefits from healthy natural estuaries and coastal lagoons. The Korean government, thus, needs to declare that it will no longer promote any development-oriented policy that might destroy valuable estuaries and coastal lagoons, in preparing for the 2002 WSSD which will be held in South Africa in 2002.

Table Of Contents

제 1 장 서 론 1

제1절 연구의 필요성 및 목적 3
1. 연구의 필요성 3
2. 목 적 5
제2절 연구의 범위 및 방법 6
1. 선행연구 고찰 6
2. 연구범위 8
3. 연구방법 13

제 2 장 하구의 정의 및 특성 17

제1절 하구의 정의 및 범위 19
1. 정 의 19
2. 범 위 21
제2절 하구환경의 특징 23
1. 하구의 물리화학적 특징 23
2. 하구의 생물지리학적 특징 27
제3절 하구환경관리의 중요성 및 일반현안 28
1. 하구환경관리의 중요성 28
2. 하구환경관리 일반현안 32

제 3 장 하구석호 환경현황 및 관리문제점 35

제1절 하구환경 현황 및 문제점 37
1. 인문사회 현황 37
2. 수질환경 및 오염부하 현황 52
3. 생태계 현황 62
4. 기타 환경 현황 68
5. 하구환경현황의 문제점 종합 70
제2절 하구환경관리 현황 및 문제점 73
1. 하구환경관리 관련법제도 현황 73
2. 하구환경관리의 문제점 종합 89
제3절 석호 환경관리현황 및 문제점 92
1. 동해안 석호의 유역개황 92
2. 인문사회현황 93
3. 수질환경 및 오염부하 현황 105
4. 생태계 현황 110
5. 동해안 석호의 상태와 훼손원인 112
6. 석호 환경현황 및 문제점 115
7. 석호 환경관리 현황 및 문제점 115

제 4 장 하구환경관리 외국사례 119

제1절 법정 하구환경관리체제 121
1. 개 요 121
2. 하구연구보전시스템 121
3. 하구프로그램 127
4. 하구서식지 복원프로그램 131
제2절 비법정 하구환경관리체제 134
1. 개 요 134
2. 캐나다의 프레이저하구 관리프로그램 134
3. 호주의 더웬트 하구관리프로그램 141
4. 영국의 템즈하구프로그램 145
5. 일본의 氣仙沼灣(大川河口) 관리계획 150
제3절 외국 하구환경관리의 시사점 151
1. 하구환경 관리에 대한 통합적 접근 151
2. 개발과 환경보전의 균형 및 조화 153
3. 보호구역의 지정 및 관리계획 수립·시행 153
4. 이해당사자의 참여 및 이해상충 조정 154
5. 하구관리기반의 구축 155
제 5 장 하구 및 석호 환경관리 기본방안 157

제1절 하구 환경관리 기본방안 159
1. 비전 및 관리원칙 159
2. 목표 및 추진전략 163
3. 부문별 시행방안 166
4. 하구유형 분류 190
제2절 석호 환경관리 기본방안 196
1. 관리기본방향 196
2. 석호의 관리유형 분류 197
3. 석호 환경관리 시행방안 201

제 6 장 관리기본방안 사례연구 209

제1절 섬진강하구 환경관리방안 211
1. 섬진강 하구 관리범위 설정 211
2. 섬진강 하구 지역특성 213
3. 섬진강 하구의 생태가치 252
4. 섬진강 하구환경관리방안 262
제2절 송지호 환경관리방안 268
1. 지역특성 및 문제점 268
2. 송지호의 생태적 가치 270
3. 송지호 환경관리방안 271

제 7 장 정책제언 및 향후 연구방향 275

제1절 정책 제언 277
1. 하구 환경관리 부문 277
2. 석호 환경관리 부문 284
제2절 연구의 한계 및 향후 연구방향 285

[참고문헌] 289
[부 록] 298

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