토양오염지역의 관리 및 복원방안 연구 Ⅰ

Title
토양오염지역의 관리 및 복원방안 연구 Ⅰ
Other Titles
미국의 법, 제도를 중심으로
Authors
박용하
Co-Author
윤서성; 방상원; 김미정; 양재의; 이양희
Issue Date
2002-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2002-07
Page
xii, 293p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19083
Language
한국어
Keywords
Soil remediation- Korea- United States
Abstract
The goal of this research is to analyze practical problems that may arise when managing and remediating contaminated soils on the basis of Korean environmental laws, and to present measures and policies to address those problems. The first part of this report deals with problems encountered in the process of enforcing the Soil Environment Conservation Act (SECA), and provides a strategic vision for devising environmental policy. U. S. laws such as CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; also known as the Superfund Act), and RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) were reviewed and several actual cases of cleanup of contaminated sites of U. S. were studied. The problems associated with management and cleanup of contaminated soils in Korea can be summarized as follows: i) uncertainty of definition of 'contaminated soil', ii) no guidance on determination of responsible parties and liability for the soil contamination, iii) no detailed instruction for the cleanup process such as determination of cleanup goal, iv) dispersion of legislative authority, v) no cleanup fund program, and vi) lack of information and education that would encourage participation of local communities. In the U. S., the primary federal environmental laws governing the investigation and cleanup of contaminated sites, Superfund and the RCRA, operate in tandem with each other in a harmonized manner. However, the following problems have been raised in the process of enforcement of the Superfund program: i) Superfund spent too much money on protracted legal battles to pinpoint who would pay for cleanups and allocate cleanup cost among PRPs (Potentially Responsible Parties), ii) very long time lag from site discovery to completion of cleanup, and treatment technology used at Superfund sites are expensive and ineffective, iii) designation as a Superfund site causes property values to fall and dries up financing for redeveloping sites, and thus negatively impacts local economies, and iv) the comprehensive authority of the EPA results in increased cleanup costs and time by selecting cleanup technology without considering site characteristics. Review of the Superfund and RCRA, as well as case studies on 9 actual cleanup sites, suggests that: i) the U. S. suffered or is suffering the same problems concerning contaminated soils as Korea does, and ii) a comprehensive approach should be taken in addressing environmental problems associated with management and cleanup of contaminated soils in Korea. Finally, policy direction and subsequent strategy regarding the soil contamination problems of Korea are proposed. Policy directions include comprehensive management and cleanup of contaminated soils, increased consideration of health and environment, and increased community participation. To implement these policy objectives, establishment of procedures for the management and cleanup of contaminated soils, expansion of community participation, and promotion of joint international research and cooperation are suggested. To establish the procedure for the management and cleanup of contaminated soils, at least a few guidelines are needed, including: definition of soil contamination and range, risks to human health and environment, and prescription of responsible parties and range of responsibility. The suggestions above are tentative and not conclusive. In the second part of this paper, Korean regulations other than SECA will be reviewed that are associated with soil contamination, such as the Waste Management Act and the Mining Act. Regulations and actual cases associated with management and cleanup of contaminated soils in the case of Europe will also be reviewed. Concrete measures for the management and cleanup of contaminated soils, as the ultimate goal of this study, will be provided.

Table Of Contents

I. 서론 1
1. 연구의 배경 및 필요성 1
2. 연구목표, 내용 및 범위 2
3. 연구보고서의 체계 4

II. 토양오염관리 및 복원현황 7
1. 우리나라 7
가. 토양오염현황 7
나. 토양오염관리 및 복원현황 16
다. 토양환경보전법과 제도의 평가 25
2. 미국 36
가. 토양오염현황 36
나. 관련법 및 제도 44

III. SUPERFUND 부지의 복원 52
1. 배경 및 발달과정 52
가. 배경 52
나. 발달과정 53
다. 적용범위 56
2. 책임 및 비용 58
가. 책임체계 58
나. Superfund 프로그램의 비용 67
3. 토양오염 기준 70
가. 토양선별(복원)기준 70
나. 토양오염 복원기준의 법률적?기술적 검토 71
다. 위해성 평가 72
4. 주민의 참여 79
5. 오염부지 복원 81
가. 행정집행 82
나. 복원 절차 83
6. 문제점 및 논의사항 96
가. 불공정한 책임기준의 부과 96
나. 복원기준 97
다. 지방경제의 침체 99
라. 지나친 연방주의 99
7. 최근의 동향 100
가. Brownfields 100
나. 자발적 복원프로그램 101
8. 사례 연구 102
가. 지역선정배경 102
나. 대상부지 103

IV. RCRA 시설 및 부지의 복원 108
1. 배경 및 발달과정 108
2. 책임 및 비용 110
3. 토양오염 복원기준과 위해성평가 110
4. 주민의 참여 111
5. 정화프로그램 111
6. 오염부지 복원 115
가. 정화조치의 절차 116
나. 시설폐쇄/사후관리 120
7. 최근의 동향 121
가. RCRA 정화조치의 개정안 121
나. RCRA Brownfields Prevention Initiative 123
8. 사례 연구 123
가. 지역선정배경 123
나. 대상부지 124

V. 미국의 법, 제도, 사례연구의 시사점 126
1. ‘오염지역‘의 정의 및 범위 129
2. 오염부지의 관리 131
3. 복원의 책임 133
4. 인체와 환경에 대한 고려 133
5. 포괄적인 법률체계 135
6. 책임정부기관 136
7. 재원조달 138
8. 지역사회의 참여 140
9. 종합 평가 141

VI. 토양오염관리 및 복원 정책의 개선방향 144
1. 정책개선방향 145
가. 포괄적인 토양오염지역의 관리 및 복원 정책 추진 145
나. 인체 및 환경에 대한 고려 145
다. 지역사회의 참여 146
2. 정책개선 추진전략 147
가. 토양오염지역의 관리 및 복원체계 마련 147
나. 지역주민의 참여 활성화 153
다. 국?내외 연구협력 및 논의의 활성화 154



VII. 결론 155
1. 과제 요약 및 결론 155
가. 요약 155
나. 결론 159
2. 연구과제의 한계 및 향후 추진과제 161

참고문헌 163

약어집 172

부록 179
1. 2001년에 개정된 토양환경보전법의 주요골자 179
2. EPA의 오염지역 관리 현황 181
3. HRS 계산방법 187
4. 미국의 중요 판례 정리 200
5. Superfund 복원과정에 소요되는 시간 208
6. 토양오염지역의 관리 및 복원사례 연구 211
가. Stringfellow Site 211
나. Iron Mountain Mine 218
다. Operating Industries, Inc., Landfill 226
라. Western Pacific Railroad Co. 267
마. Treasure Island Naval Station-Hunters Point Annex 281
바. Charnock MTBE Site 287
사. IT Panoche Landfill 290
아. O'Brien Corporation 291
자. Square D Company 292

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