남북환경 및 에너지협력 활성화 전략 연구 Ⅰ

Title
남북환경 및 에너지협력 활성화 전략 연구 Ⅰ
Authors
강광규
Co-Author
김경술; 손기웅; 정회성; 이창희; 김미숙
Issue Date
2002-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2002-15
Page
v, 143p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19090
Language
한국어
Keywords
Power resources- Korea
Abstract
The purpose of the study is to analysis the environmental status and management in North Korea, to research the possibility of environment and energy cooperation between North and South Korea and to suggest the mid and long term strategies to enhance the cooperation. North Korea has suffered environmental problems closely connected with economic ones, for examples, low productivity with out of date industrial facilities and technology, severe energy and food shortages, and deforestation. Therefore North Korea's air quality seems to be more polluted than the South's because the North's energy consumption depends mostly on low quality coal. The water quality is very poor for bodies of waters adjacent to industrial sources of untreated wastewater and major cities not equipped with sewage disposal plants. From the late 1980s to the late 1990s, the forest area in North Korea has decreased by 510,000 hectacres, or 5% of the total forest area, because of mal management including forest clearing for arable land and the wood demand for cooking and heating. Recently North Korea has taken steps to open economic zones to induce much needed foreign investment and technology to prop up its struggling economy, which will affect North Korea's environment problem positively as well as negatively. The State might ignore environmental conservation to revive its economy as most of the developing countries do. However there are opportunities North Korea can improve its environmental quality, if the country strive to learn from neighboring countries' experiences in economic development and environmental management. If the north wants to better its environmental quality, the State should understand problems its environmental management faces. First, in environmental system, environmental management quality with environmental technocrats is likely to be low. Secondly, in energy policy sector, which is closely connected with air quality management, there is no relevant department entirely dealing with energy plan and assessment. And energy convert technology and facilities are not operated efficiently. Thirdly, the drinking water supply system is not properly equipped with sanitary facilities. And wastewater is not well treated due to obsolete industrial wastewater plants, as a result, the water quality of major rivers with a high density of industrial emission sources is seriously deteriorating with high pollution concentrations. Fourthly, in nature conservation, North Korea is unable to solve its food and energy shortage, which are main obstacles for nature conservation because nature resources deteriorated lack of fuel. Nowadays the two Koreas has started many economic cooperation projects like reconnection with cross-border railways and roads and a industrial complex development etc.. Thus, mid and long term environmental cooperation alternatives which should be harmonized with economic cooperation are as follows. In energy sector, investment on energy efficient facilities and emission control facilities, coal development technology and use, introduction natural gas from neighboring countries and establishment of infra structure to be provided with petrol. In water quality management, the drinking water supply system with sanitary facilities to prevent waterborne diseases should be top priority project of inter-Korean cooperation. And it is necessary to give the water quality management technology to be able to secure a steady clean tap water supply. In nature conservation sector, joint survey on bio-diversity throughout the Korean peninsula and establishment its information system to utilize cooperation with international organizations and neighboring countries. Technological and monetary support environment-friendly reforestation policies and agricultural infra structure.

Table Of Contents

제1장 서 론 1

제2장 북한 환경현황 4
1. 환경정책 및 행정체계 4
가. 환경관련 법규 4
나. 환경정책 8
다. 환경행정 체계 18
2. 매체별 환경 현황 21
가. 경제산업 및 자원이용 실태 21
나. 대기 29
다. 수질 46
라. 자연환경 53

제3장 북한의 환경오염 전망 67
1. 대내외적 여건 변화 67
2. 매체별 환경오염 전망 69
가. 대기 69
나. 수질 70
다. 자연환경 72
3. 환경정책상의 도전과 대응역량 75
가. 제도적인 측면 75
나. 대기 77
다. 수질 81
라. 자연환경 87


제4장 남북 환경교류협력 사례 및 시사점 90
1. 환경교류협력의 배경 및 의의 90
가. 환경교류협력의 필요성 90
나. 환경교류협력의 법적?제도적 변화 91
다. 환경교류협력의 의의 92
2. 남북 환경교류협력 추진 상황 94
가. 양자간 교류협력 94
나. 제3국 및 국제기구를 환경교류협력 103
3. 평가 및 시사점 107
가. 요약 107
나. 평가 및 시사점 109

제5장 남북 환경교류협력 활성화 방안 114
1. 향후 북한 환경정책 추진의 기본전제와 방향 114
가. 환경정책 114
나. 대기 115
다. 수질 116
라. 자연환경 117
2. 중장기적 교류협력 과제 119
가. 환경정책 119
나. 대기 121
다. 수질 126
라. 자연환경 129

제6장 결론 134

참 고 문 헌 137

Abstract 142

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