주5일 근무와 여가활동 변화에 따른 환경영향

Title
주5일 근무와 여가활동 변화에 따른 환경영향
Authors
최진석
Co-Author
이병국; 이강욱; 조강욱
Issue Date
2002-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
정책보고서 : 2002-13
Page
ix, 72p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19096
Language
한국어
Keywords
leisure
Abstract
Improvement of Water Quality Management Systems to Support Integrated Coastal Environment Management Coastal areas have unique ecological and socioeconomic values as a transitional environment where land and sea meet. Despite of overall improvement of coastal water qualities in recent years, waters in semi-enclosed coastal bays or near populated cities and large estuaries such as Shiwha Lake, Gwangyang Bay, Masan Bay and coasts of Busan and Incheon are still not good enough to support the sustainable use of coastal resources. This reflects that current coastal water quality management systems have some institutional and operational limitations to effectively control the water pollution sources, particularly the land-based pollution sources. Review on the coastal water quality management systems in this study addressed several issues as the following: ● Concentration-based national effluent limit for the control of individual point pollution sources could not be a safeguard at local levels where carrying capacities of the waters were very limited, e.g. semi-enclosed Masan and Gwangyang Bays. ● Top priority of the national water quality policy was always placed on securing safe and clean drinking water supply so that investment and institutional support for improving coastal water qualities were relatively insufficient. ● Shared jurisdiction (Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries - Ministry of Environment) and fragmented systems on coastal environment management without proper co-ordinating mechanisms resulted in some conflicts, discrepancies, or duplications among the responsible authorities or related laws and regulations. ● Management efforts based on physico-chemical indicators (mainly chemical oxygen demand, COD) were not enough to support resource-based coastal environment management, which aims to overall environmental quality improvement including coastal ecosystems and biological resources. Recommended actions and approaches to effectively deal with those issues include the following: ● Introduction of total-load-based pollution control system is necessary to overcome the inherited limitations of the current concentration-based pollution control system. It might be considered development and application of more tighten local or regional effluent limits for degraded coastal waters, development of point-source discharge permit system as the 'National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System' in the United States, and extended application of 'Total Pollution Load Management System' which is only being forced in major river basins in Korea. ● Enhancement of coordinating mechanisms and rearrangement of institutional frameworks are required to promote the cooperation among stakeholder and to support the integrated and harmonized coastal environment management in all sectors and levels. These include establishing maritime affairs division in 'Presidential Commission on Sustainable Development' to lead sustainable coastal development, enhancing the capability of 'Commission on Protection of the Quality and Supply of Freshwater Resources' to promote coordination among central government agencies, and restructuring institutional frameworks to effectively support integrated coastal management. ● It is necessary to reenforce pre-existing 'Coastal Environment Management Zone(CEMZ)' program as well as to develop new watershed-based coastal management programs such as "Estuary Environment Management Program(EEMP)'. Local programs should be established to draw active participations and involvements of stakeholder for the successful planning and implementing CEMZ action plan. Introduction of EEMP will be very helpful to improve and protect the degraded nation's estuarine environments so that development of institutional or noninstitutional EEMP is strongly recommended. To effectively backup these kinds of watershed-based management programs, watershed management frameworks applicable to national, regional, and local levels and their implementation strategies should be developed as soon as possible.

Table Of Contents

차 례


제1장 서 론 8
1. 연구 배경 및 목적 8
2. 연구범위 및 방법 9
가. 범위 9
나. 방법 10

제2장 연안수질환경 현황 및 문제점 13
1. 수질 현황 및 문제점 13
가. 유기물 13
나. 영양염류 18
다. 중금속 21
라. 유해화학물질 24
마. 유류오염 27
바. 해양폐기물 28
사. 연안해역 수질환경 문제점 29
2. 수질오염원 현황 및 문제점 30
가. 육상오염원 현황 30
나. 환경기초시설 현황 32
다. 해양기인 오염원 현황 39
3. 관리현황 및 문제점 42
가. 연안수질환경 관리제도의 변천 42
나. 육상오염원 관리현황 46
다. 해양오염원 관리현황 53
라. 연안수질환경 관리현황 및 문제점 57
제3장 연안수질환경 관리체제 개선방안 70
1. 연안해역 환경용량을 고려한 오염원 관리 70
가. 수질규제기준의 조정 70
나. 부하총량에 근거한 점오염원 관리체제로 개편 72
다. 연안총량관리제의 도입 74
2. 연안환경관리체제의 재정비 77
가. 관리부처의 간의 정책조율 및 협력체제 강화 78
나. 유역관리 지원조직의 강화 82
다. 통합성 제고를 위한 법제정비 83
3. 연안유역관리체제의 확립 87
가. 환경관리해역 관리의 강화 87
나. 하구환경관리프로그램의 개발 89
다. 유역관리 체제의 개발 93

제4장 정책 제언 98

참 고 문 헌 103

부 록 108

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