하구역 환경보전 전략 및 통합환경관리 방안 수립

Title
하구역 환경보전 전략 및 통합환경관리 방안 수립
Other Titles
한강하구역을 중심으로
Authors
이창희
Co-Author
구도완; 노태호; 문현주; 전성우; 허경미
Issue Date
2003-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2003-02
Page
xii, 235p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19107
Language
한국어
Abstract
Environment Management Strategy for Han River Estuary in Korea Han River Estuary is located on the west coast of Korea. Compared to highly developed upper part of the estuary (Seoul Metropolitan Area), the lower part of the estuary, which is a part of Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) and Military Facility Protected Area (MFPA) has been preserved well since the Korean War. Recently, however, concerns on the possible degradation and destruction of this precious estuary were raised in public because military tension and increased economic cooperation between South and North Korea began encouraging local developments in this border area. In this aspect, this study aims to develop environmental management strategy to protect the natural integrity, function and value of the Han River Estuary from the surging local development pressures and demands. The estuary shows the natural abundance and biological diversity typically observed in macro-tidal environment and supports the local socio-economic needs. Total of 356.431km2 of estuarine wetlands support a wide range of internationally and nationally protected birds including 7 endangered species and 20 natural monuments such as White-naped crane, Chinese egret, and Black-faced spoonbill. In addition, rare plant species (Grewia sp., Leopard flower, Crypsinus sp., and etc.) and distinctive plant communities(Winter green and its relative species) are distributed in riparian or nearby terrestrial areas of the estuary. Several fishes such as River puffer, Horse-shoe crab and eel support the local commercial and recreational fisheries. At the same time, Panmunjeom and Mt. Odoo observation platform, which are historic sites of Korean War, draw many tourists from nearby Seoul Metropolitan areas. Rapid expansion of the Seoul Metropolitan area, which is reflected in statistics (5% increase in urbanized area and 50% increase in number of industry for the last 5 years) resulted in various environmental problems in the Han River Estuary. Nutrient enrichment (eutrophication), sediment contamination, malformed fishes, and increased floating debris are major water quality problems in the estuary. In addition, several natural environmental problems are identified, such as destruction of environmentally sensitive habitats by estuary development, blocking wildlife pathways or corridors between rivers and riparian areas by the river banks and military fences, and negative environmental impacts by the Singok Submerged Weir. It is expected that implementation of 'The DMZ Area Development Plan', development of new towns in the Gimpo and Paju areas, connection of South-North Korea transportation networks, and increasing demands of local tourism will be major environmental stresses in the estuary. This research suggested management vision, principles and strategies for the Han River Estuary based on the qualitative analysis by PSR and SWOT approaches and case studies. First of all, "Han River Estuary as a living place for naturally diverse and vivid, and socio-economically prosperous" was set as a management vision. Four management principles; sustainable, cooperative, ecosystem-based and integrated approaches were suggested to achieve the vision and eight management strategies were developed based on the principles: adaptation of precautionary policies and measures, encouragement of local stake-holder's participation, development of institutional management frameworks and systems, development and implementation of environmental survey/research/monitoring programs, designation of substantial environmental protection zones, development of a comprehensive 'Han River Estuary Environment Management Plan', development of habitat restoration strategies, and establishment of secure funding sources to support the estuary management. Management boundary of the Han River Estuary was defined as "the area from the down-stream watersheds of Jamsil Submerged Weir(landward) to the administrative boundary of Ganghwa and Ongjin counties in Gyeonggi Province(seaward)" based on the available scientific characteristics, demands of natural resources management, and substantial management conditions. Designation of the 'Environmental Management District (EMD)' was suggested to effectively protect natural environment as well as to support site-specific environment-friendly land-use in the estuary. The EMD was divided into five classes based on the 'National Environmental Assessment Criteria' which reflects regional environmental conditions. It is suggested that classes I and II are managed as conservation areas where local development is strictly regulated, class III, as an improvement area where only environment-friendly development is permitted, and classes IV and V, as restoration areas where local development is encouraged. According to the zoning, preservation areas occupy 57.7% (1,656km2) of the total area of the Han River Estuary. Although detailed regulations applicable to the individual areas have to be further developed based on local surveys, the EMD is expected to be a practical tool to support environment-friendly development. Policies and countermeasures to solve the environmental problems and issues identified in five management sectors were suggested. Major recommendations are summarized as follows: ?Land/transportation: designation of the EMD to encourage the planned development, application of strict land-use regulations for the implementation of the 'DMZ Area Development Plan', and development of detailed land-use guidelines in the EMD and DMZ area. ?Natural environment: development and implementation of basic estuary surveys and researches, development and implementation of estuary monitoring systems, and designations of the 'Estuary Ecosystem Conservation Area' and the 'Natural Reserved Area'. ?Water environment: implementation of the 'Total Pollution Load Management System' in the estuary, conducting post environmental impact assessment for the Singok Submerged Weir, and identification of exposure pathways of toxic chemicals. ?Landscape/tourism: designation of the 'Natural Landscape Conservation Area' and development of the 'Natural Landscape Management Plan' for downstream of the Singok Submerged Weir ?Fisheries: improvement of the fishery management system, estimation of quantitative fishery stocks, and life cycle study of estuarine commercial fishes. New institutional and noninstitutional management frameworks were suggested to support implementation of the suggestion and overcome current management problems such as fragmented government policies and schemes, uncoordinated management approaches, and lack of environmental knowledge and information. ?Establish 'Han River Estuary Management Council(provisional name)' and related advisory committees, and develop a 'Comprehensive Han River Estuary Environment Management Plan(provisional name)' ?Provide legal or institutional estuary management basis by either enactment of the 'Special Act for Environmental Preservation and Utilization of Han River Estuary(provisional name)' or 'Act for Integrated Watershed Management (provisional name)' ?Support establishment of non-institutional local or regional cooperative networks between government, local stake-holders, NGOs and military to facilitate environmental problems and disputes ?Adapt and implement various non-institutional management measures such as voluntary agreement systems for biodiversity protection, cooperative educational programs for capacity building, and local monitoring programs for drawing stake-holder participation With all the suggested management strategies, selection of practical management measures and their effectiveness are uncertain at this point in time because of lack of knowledge and information on the estuary. In this aspect, this study also suggested spending over 8 billion Korean Won on the estuary surveys and research plan for the next 5 years, and presented 37 sustainable development indexes applicable to assess current status and to evaluate future management effectiveness based on the sustainable development concept.

Table Of Contents

제1장 서 론 1
1. 연구필요성 및 목적 1
2. 연구범위 및 방법· 3

제2장 한강하구의 환경생태 현황 8
1. 개 황 8
2. 자연환경 현황 11
가. 개 황 11
나. 경 관 12
다. 습 지 15
라. 식 물 19
마. 포유류 20
바. 조 류 21
사. 어 류 26
아. 기 타 28
3. 수질환경 현황 29
가. 개 황 29
나. 염분 및 수리현황 29
다. 하천구역 수질 32
라. 연안해역 수질 37
마. 중금속 오염 39
바. 플랑크톤 39
사. 저서생물 44
아. 강우쓰레기 45
자. 퇴적물 48

제3장 한강하구의 인문사회 현황 및 환경관리 실태 50
1. 인문사회 현황 50
가. 개 황 50
나. 인구?사업 현황 51
다. 토지?교통 54
라. 문화?관광 63
마. 수산 67
2. 환경관리 현황 및 문제점 74
가. 관리체제 74
나. 토지이용 77
다. 자연환경 83
라. 수질환경 89
마. 수산자원 94

제4장 한강하구 환경관리여건 전망과 대응 전략 98
1. 환경관리여건 및 전망 98
가. 개 괄 98
나. 한강하구 환경관리여건 99
다. 한강하구 환경관리여건 전망 102
2. 한강하구 환경관리비전 및 원칙 104
가. 비 전 105
나. 원 칙 108
다. 정책방향 109
3. 부문별 관리전략 109
가. 개 괄 109
나. 토지?교통 110
다. 자연환경 113
라. 수질환경 115
마. 경관?관광 116
바. 수 산 118

제5장 한강하구 환경관리정책의 기본구상 120
1. 한강하구의 지리적 관리범위 설정 120
가. 설정기준 120
나. 경계설정 121
2. 한강하구 환경관리권역의 설정 및 관리방향 125
가. 방법론 125
나. 환경관리권역 구분 130
다. 중점관리지역의 지정 133
라. 환경관리권역별 관리 135
3. 한강하구 환경관리체제의 정비 137
가. 한강하구 환경관리체제 137
나. 한강하구 조사 및 연구 151
다. 한강하구의 지속발전가능성 평가 156

제6장 결론 161
1. 요 약 161
2. 향후 과제 164

< 부 록 > 167

참고문헌 217

Abstract 228

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