DMZ 일원의 환경보전 기본방안

DMZ 일원의 환경보전 기본방안
변병설; 이병준
Issue Date
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2003-03
xii, 269p.
An Environment Conservation Master Plan for the Korea DMZ Area This study aims at developing an environment conservation plan for the DMZ area. Although there have been a number of studies on the DMZ areas, they were fragmented or not detailed enough to be utilized as an effective policy alternative. In particular, as environment conservation plans were not converted into spatial plans, natural environment destruction caused by development plans and development behaviors was not addressed effectively. Also, areas with conservation value are not being conserved properly. Therefore, in order to realize environment conservation and sustainable development in the DMZ area, there have been continuous requests for the development of a comprehensive and specific as well as spatial environment conservation plan that can control various development activities and conserve valuable areas in the DMZ area. In this context, this study proceeded in the following steps. First, the significance of the DMZ area was clarified and rationales for conserving the area were described. The DMZ area is the symbol of separation of two Koreas and the Cold War ideology. Although it is an area where military tension between North Korea and South Korea still remains, it will transform into a global ecological & peaceful area in the future. However, growing development pressure in the DMZ area is increasing the possibility of environment destruction. While keeping a close eye on such environmental changes in the DMZ area, quality biodiversity, unique natural ecosystem, prevention of further natural environment destruction, sustainable development through environment conservation, environment conservation benefits to future generations, high ecological conservation value, and environment-friendly national land management were suggested as the necessity of environment conservation in the DMZ area. Second, the scope of environment management for the DMZ area was defined. By overlapping the micro-spheres of ecological survey spheres used in developing an ecological & natural map and basin zones in the Standard Basin Map developed by Water Resource Corporation with transboundary areas in the Transboundary Area Support Law, the scope of environment management in the DMZ area incorporating a bio-regional perspective was defined. Third, environment management districts were defined by conducting land environmental assessment in the DMZ area and categorizing them by grades. In land environmental assessment, "National Land Environmental Assessment Items and Criteria" by Ministry of Environment were applied. The results of management district grading analysis showed that out of total area of 7.718.76 ㎢, grade 1 or core area that requires absolute conservation is 55.51% (4,284.85 ㎢), grade 2 or buffer area that should be conserved is 23.45% (1,809.76 ㎢), grade 3 within transition area that requires environment-friendly development is 8.20% (632.98 ㎢), grade 4 within transition area is 2.41% (186.27 ㎢), grade 5 or already developed area is 5.09% (393.00 ㎢), and ungradable area is 5.34% (411.90 ㎢). Here, the ungradable areas are those where land environmental assessment is not possible because lack of data. Fourth, as environment conservation strategies for the DMZ area, building a framework for an environment plan through spatial environment map development, differentiated management of management districts, correction of unfair spatial distribution effect from environment policies, a shift from passive regulatory policies to proactive conservation policies, and the role defining and cooperative system among stakeholders were suggested. In here, differentiated management of management districts means that no development is allowed at all in grade 1 area as it is high-priority conservation area. In grade 2 area, while development is not allowed, small-scale environment-friendly development is allowed partially. In grade 3, development after environment-friendly planning and rigorous environmental assessment is allowed. While environment-friendly development is allowed in grade 4, its restriction is eased than in grade 3. Grade 5 is an already developed area where environment is protected from further deterioration through environment-friendly management and environmental restoration. Fifth, a sector-specific environment conservation direction to be included in district-specific environment conservation was suggested. Sectors include natural resource, land use, industrial activities, tourism activities, and military activities. The management of natural resource should be done in directions of conserving natural ecosystems considering regional features, natural ecosystem survey and on-going monitoring, wetland ecosystem conservation, and restoration of vulnerable and destroyed ecosystems. In land use, prevention of reckless development through planned land use management, minimization of impact of development projects on ecosystems, and differentiated land use plan across districts are required. In industrial activities, fostering of quality economics (economic activities that are environmentally sound and enable local community promotion and regional development) is required. Tourism activities need to seek sustainable tourism and honeycomb development method (focused development of existing city and settlement areas + minimum lodging facilities in unit tourist destination + transportation linking base area and unit tourist destination). As for military activities, on-going efforts by the military in environment conservation activities, detailed ecosystem survey within military jurisdictions, environmental review during military exercise review in military facility protection districts, and establishment of civilian-government-military cooperative system are necessary. Sixth, as for action plans for environment conservation, streamlining of law & regulations, compensation and support to local residents, establishment of civilian-government cooperative system, and utilization of international protection districts were suggested. As for the streamlining of laws & regulations, improvement of currently existing laws, signing of "International Agreement for Sustainable Management of the DMZ Area" that targets DMZ and the north of CCA, and legislation of "DMZ Area Sustainable Management Law" were suggested. In order to compensate and support local residents, a land purchase program was suggested for land that is worthwhile to be designated as a protected area. Voluntary agreements such as a biodiversity management contract was proposed for areas where environment-friendly activities such as farming activities are possible. Indirect support method was suggested for areas where environment-friendly development and use were required. In the civilian-government cooperative systems, easing conflicts and consensus building by restoring trust between government sector and local residents were stressed. In order to establish the civilian-government cooperative system, roles need to be defined adequately among stakeholders. As for the civilian-government cooperative systems, setting up "DMZ Special Committee" (tentative) participated by stakeholders in the Ministry of Environment at the central government level and establishing "Local (Consensus) Committee" in short-term and "Local Agenda 21" in long-term at the local government level were proposed. In utilization of international protection district system, the DMZ area should be managed rigorously under the Korean laws & regulations and, based on this, designation of UNESCO Biosphere Reserve should be initiated jointly between North Korea and South Korea. Also, the core areas or major ecosystems associated with core areas of a biosphere reserve can be designated as the World Heritage. Since overlapped designation is possible, an area that can be designated as Ramsar Site can seek to be designated by alone or in association with a biosphere reserve.

Table Of Contents



제1장 서론 1

1. 연구의 배경과 목적 1
가. 연구의 배경 1
나. 연구의 목적 2

2. 연구의 범위와 방법 3
가. 연구의 범위 3
나. 연구의 방법 6

3. 선행연구의 고찰 8

제2장 DMZ 일원의 생태적 가치와 보전필요성 18

1. DMZ 일원의 구성지역과 의미 18
가. DMZ 일원의 구성지역 18
나. DMZ 일원의 의미 23

2. DMZ 일원의 생태적 가치 25
가. 우수한 생물다양성 25
나. 특이한 자연생태계 28
다. 높은 생태적 보전가치 31

3. DMZ 일원의 환경보전 필요성 34
가. 자연생태계의 훼손 방지 34
나. 지속가능한 발전의 실현 37
다. 세계적인 생태?평화지역 39
라. 친환경적인 국토관리 41

제3장 DMZ 일원의 향후 전망과 관리권역 설정 44

1. DMZ 일원에 대한 정책동향과 전망 44
가. 정책동향 44
나. 여건변화와 전망 48

2. 관련 계획 및 법령의 검토 52
가. 접경지역종합계획 53
나. 백두대간보호에관한법률 54

3. 관리범위의 설정 57
가. 관리범위 설정의 필요성 및 기본방향 57
나. 관리범위 설정의 방법 61
다. 관리범위의 설정 62

제4장 DMZ 일원의 환경보전에 대한 설문조사 72

1. 조사개요 72

2. 빈도분석 결과 74
가. DMZ 일원에 대한 관리 인식정도 74
나. DMZ 일원에 대한 관리 실태 75
다. DMZ 일원의 관리방안 78

3. 직업군과 환경보전성향간의 관계분석 결과 85
가. 직업별 DMZ 일원에 대한 이미지 86
나. 직업별 DMZ 일원의 자연환경 보전 및 관리 87
다. 직업별 DMZ 일원의 자연환경 훼손원인 88
라. 직업별 접경지역종합계획의 환경보전에 기여도 88
마. 직업별 DMZ 일원의 환경보전방안 수립의 필요도 89
바. 직업별 DMZ 일원의 환경보전, 관리 주체 90
사. 직업별 TBR 지정을 위한 우선 사항 92
아. 직업별 통일 후 DMZ 관리에 대한 생각 93

4. DMZ 일원의 환경보전에 대한 항목간 상관관계 94

제5장 DMZ 일원의 지속가능한 환경보전방안 96

1. 기본방향 96
가. 기본이념 96
나. 기본원칙 100
다. 환경보전전략 104

2. 관리권역의 설정 110
가. 관리권역 설정의 기본전제 110
나. 관리권역 설정을 위한 지표항목의 선정과 기준안 작성 115
다. 관리권역의 성격 121
라. 평가기준의 적용 122
마. 평가기준 적용의 결과: 관리권역의 설정 131
바. 관리권역 설정의 한계와 과제 134

3. 관리권역별 환경보전방안 135
가. 기본방향 135
나. 1등급 핵심지역 보전방안 160
다. 2등급 완충지역 보전방안 164
라. 3등급 전이지역 보전방안 167
마. 4등급 전이지역 보전방안 170
바. 5등급 개발지역 보전방안 172
사. 등급외지역 보전방안 174
아. DMZ 보전방안 175

4. 환경보전의 실천과제와 추진방안 181
가. 법령의 정비 181
나. 지역주민에 대한 보상 및 지원방안 194
다. 합의형성과 민?관협력체제 구축 202
라. 국제적 보호구역 제도의 활용 214

제6장 연구의 요약 및 향후 과제 222

1. 연구의 요약 222

2. 연구의 한계 및 향후 과제 226

참고문헌 228

부록 1 : DMZ 일원의 환경보전 기본방안을 위한 전문가 설문지 236

부록 2 : 각 주제도별 통계 현황 241

부록 3 : 인제군 서화면 가전리지역 국토환경성평가도 257

부록 4 : 지역?지구별 행위제한 내용 259

Abstract 265

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