농산물 시장개방의 환경영향과 정책제언

Title
농산물 시장개방의 환경영향과 정책제언
Authors
김광임
Issue Date
2003-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
정책보고서 : 2003-03
Page
87p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19130
Language
한국어
Abstract
Agricultural Market Liberalization, its Environmental Impact and Policy Implications Objectives of this research are to analyze an environmental impact of agricultural market liberalization and to find environmental policy implications. Agricultural market liberalization has been widely known since UR and WTO and it has negative impact on our agricultural market which has low international competitiveness power. Especially, rice product among other agricultural products are negatively affected after liberalization. The reduction of rice production will cause decrease of rice paddy field area. Impact of reduction of agricultural production on environment is two-fold; positive effect is decrease of pollutants and negative impact is reduction of green fields and loss of natural environment due to change of farm land utilization structure through rice paddy field reduction. After the discussion of agricultural market liberalization was started, rice paddy field area decreased 12.3% during past 10 years and that of Seoul, Daejeon, Gyeonggi, Gyeongnam province had decreased 26~35% representing the most decrease in rice paddy field area. Thus the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on fertilizer consumption, generation of livestock wastewater, and waste generation and urbanization trend are analyzed. 1) Fertilizer Consumption The analysis on the relationship between fertilizer consumption and liberalization, rice paddy field area, dry field area shows that; Variables of rice paddy field area, dry field area and liberalization dummy does not have a significant and negative impact on decrease of fertilizer consumption. This implies that fertilizer consumption does not decrease directly after agricultural trade liberalization and it can't be concluded that water pollution due to farming declines, even though agricultural production decreases. 2) Waste Generation Interrelationship between rice paddy field area or dry field area and waste generation is analyzed in order to see the impact of agricultural production reduction on waste reduction. The dry field area has positive(+) impact on waste generation and the variable is significant according to t-statistics of the variable. Dry field area, especially, has larger impact that rice field area variable which implies waste generation in farm area is affected by dry field farming rather than rice farming. 3) Urbanization According to the analysis of the relationship between urbanization rate and agricultural area, pollution in farm land is being transferred to urban type pollution. 4) Farming Land Agricultural trade liberalization has a direct and negative(-) impact on the reduction of rice farming land area at 10% significance level. However, dry farming area is not affected as same as rice field area is. Environmental policy recommendations based on the results are suggested as follows. 1) Environmental Policy for Pollution Management Firstly, the prospect of agricultural development and its environmental impacts need to be reflected into the agricultural non-point source pollution management plan. As rice farming declines, dry field farming becomes more intensive and tends to use more fertilizer, which aggravate water pollution. Secondly, demand for livestock wastewater treatment infrastructure needs to be re-estimated and rearranged according to regional situation changes. Many livestock areas are on the reduction in the neighborhood of cities. 2) Environmental Policy for Resources Pollution Firstly, the demand for agricultural water needs to be reestimated due to the large reduction of rice farming. Secondly, a cpmprehensive plan of environment-friendly farm land use should be prepared beforehand. Demand for farmland development will be irresistibly increased and rapid conversion of farming land to city land will cause erosion of green area, loss of natural environment and species. 3) Link between Environmental policy and Environment-Friendly Farming Firstly, the way of agriculture production decision based on economic profitability should be changed to include environmental profitability. Secondly, concepts and range of environment-friendly farming or sustainable agriculture need to be expanded to include ecosystem-conservation, nature-conservation concept.

Table Of Contents

서 언
국문요약

제1장 서 론 1
1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 1
2. 연구 범위 2

제2장 농산물 시장 개방과 농업영향 3
1. 농산물 시장개방 논의 동향 3
가. UR협상 3
나. WTO DDA 농산물 협상 3
2. 국내 농업부문 영향과 대책 5
가. 농산업 영향 5
나. 농업 전망 7
다. 시장개방에 대한 대책 10
라. 친환경농업 대책 11
3. 농업부문의 변화 및 환경문제 13
가. 농림업 생산 감소와 환경오염 부하 감소 14
나. 농촌의 도시화와 도시형 생활환경오염 증가 15
다. 경지면적 감소와 자연 경관 변화 15
라. 환경친화농업 육성과 환경오염 16
마. 농촌토지보전계획 16
사. 농업교역 조건 악화 17

제3장 농업시장 변화와 환경영향 분석 18
1. 비료 및 농약 소비 영향 18
가. 농약 및 비료 소비량 18
나. 비료 소비와 상관성 분석 21
2. 축산폐수 발생에 미치는 영향 22
3. 폐기물 발생에 미치는 영향 28
가. 농촌지역 폐기물 발생 현황 28
나. 폐기물발생과 상관성 33
4. 도시화에 미치는 영향 35
가. 도시화율 변화 추이 35
나. 도시화율과 시장개방의 상관성 35
5. 경지면적 변화에 미치는 영향 36
가. 전국 경지면적 변화 36
나. 토지이용의 용도 변화 39
다. 경지면적과 시장개방의 상관성 54

제4장 농산물 시장 개방과 환경정책 제언 56
1. 오염물질 발생과 관리 측면의 환경 정책 방안 56
가. 농업부문 비점오염원 대책 마련 56
나. 축산폐수처리시설의 지역별 수요 점검 57
다. 도시화에 따른 도시형 오염 대책 마련 57
2. 자원이용측면의 환경 정책 방안 58
가. 농업용수 소비수요 재검토 및 공급시설 관리 58
나. 환경가치를 고려한 농촌 토지이용계획 마련 58
3. 농업정책과 환경정책의 연계성 강화 59
가. 환경적 수익성을 반영한 농업생산 결정 59
나. 농업생산비용에 환경비용 반영 59
다. 친환경농업정책의 개선 60
라. 향후 연구 과제 65

참 고 문 헌 67

Abstract 71

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