환경친화적 댐관리를 위한 사례연구

Title
환경친화적 댐관리를 위한 사례연구
Authors
최지용
Co-Author
김흥년
Issue Date
2003-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
정책보고서 : 2003-06
Page
147p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19133
Language
한국어
Abstract
Emphasis in the construction and management of dams in Korea had been put on the aspects of irrigation and flood control until 1980s so as to secure supply water and reduce damage due to floods. Beginning from 1990s when Korea took its place among the group of the advanced countries and people began to concern about the quality of their living, however, environmental problems involved in water resources developmental projects came to the front of social issues. Now that environmental consideration in the construction of dams is perceived as a matter of course, and the existing dams should be remodeled to be environmentally friendly, systematic researches are required for the environment-friendly management of multipurpose dams. With the recent appearance of a new paradigm that demands the protection of natural environment, the influence on the environment is required to be limited to the least in the operation of dams. Most of dams in Korea were built before the 1980s when the environmental assessment was not implemented and proper consideration was not given to the environment protection. In the operation of the existing dams, diverse methods to restore the damaged environment and ecology to the original state are required to be developed to replace the factors unfriendly to environment and for that, actual conditions of the existing dams and management examples in the advanced countries should be collected and investigated for reference in the future construction and management of dams. Korea has no other ways but to further build dams to secure water resources despite diverse difficulties involved in it and oppositions raised by environment organizations and the general public owing to various unfavorable side-effects, such as damage to environment, exodus of large number of settlers from the submerged land and the development restriction on the land in the vicinity of dams. In foreign countries, the concept of environment-friendly dam was introduced beginning from the 1970s as a solution for such unfavorable side-effects, but in Korea, the environmental considerations have not been taken in the development of dams until the 1980s when the environmental assessment was introduced for the first time. To use dams in a way friendly to environment with visible effects, an elaborate plan should be prepared to combine projects for natural restoration and promotion of water-friendly environment with the social, cultural and economic situation of the surrounding communities. For instance, ecological restoration project should be carefully planned in a way that allows it to use as a forum for education, cultural events and economic promotion. To restore ecology, actual conditions of the ecological environment in the surrounding area of the dam should be first investigated and then the species of animals and plants worthy of restoring and preserving and places suitable to the purpose should be selected based upon the investigation result. And using natural recuperative powers, nature should be restored and preserved so that it can provide a space for diverse roles and activities, including hiding-places and passageways for the inhabitants, leisure and recreation, environmental experiments and local ecological research. This kind of ecological restoration project can take effects, tangible and intangible, in diverse ways. In terms of education, it provides an opportunity for practical environmental education in place of the education in classrooms, and in terms of local community, it provides the residents with a forum for relaxation, education and society. In addition, the improved environment will lead to economic returns and the local economy can be jumped up by commercializing the ecology as a tourism commodity. In terms of ecology, the reclaimed land can be used in many ways, including the habitation for animals and plants, and the monitoring of the earth's surface and water environment. In the planning for the restoration of ecology, subdivided local features, such as hydrographic features of the reservoir, conditions of natural environment including fauna and flora and climate of the locality, accessibility and developmental projects in the vicinity, should be considered and the method proper for the purpose should be employed. To harmonize the needs for dam development with the opposition against it, the policy for water resources should be transparently conducted and dams should be built and operated in a way that harmonizes human with nature. Given the fact that the hitherto development of dams with a focus on aspects of irrigation and flood control has retarded the local economy and caused to be designated as the main destroyer of environment, plans for the promotion of local economy and ecological restoration are required to be established in short days. In the context, the facilities for recreational and leisure industry allowed to be constructed within the range of environmental capacity in addition to ecological restoration projects will provide the local residents who were damaged due to the construction of dams with an opportunity to economically stand for themselves and the general people with the opportunity to enjoy their leisure through the water-friendly environment, thus turning the dams into a means to give benefits to the community, local residents and the general people.

Table Of Contents



제1장 서 론 1
1-1. 연구의 목적 1
1-2. 연구의 범위 및 방법 2

제2장 우리나라 댐건설 및 관리실태 고찰 3
2-1. 댐 유역환경 및 댐 환경실태 3
1. 댐 유역환경 현황 3
2. 댐 수역의 오염배출량 및 수질실태 8
3. 댐 운영 현황 14
2-2. 댐건설로 인한 편익과 환경영향 20
1. 댐건설 편익 20
2. 댐건설에 의한 환경영향 25
2-3. 우리나라 다목적댐의 환경관리 실태 30
1. 기존댐의 환경성 고려 실태 30
2. 환경 및 사회경제 영향감소 대책 40
3. 댐 개발 및 관리에 있어 적용기법 49

제3장 국외의 환경친화적 댐관리 동향 57
3-1. 댐 정비 사례 57
1. 다양한 생육·서식환경의 정비 57
2. 식생 복원 등 61
3. 수질 환경보전 62
4. 하천환경의 보전(토사, 유사대책) 63
5. 야생동물 이동경로의 확보 65
6. 어도 설치 66
7. 수원지역 사업 67
8. 유지용수 및 친수시설 설치 70
10. 경관 향상 및 수질 보전 74

3-2. 댐주변지역 활성화 지원 사례 77

제4장 댐의 환경친화적 관리방안 81
4-1. 기존의 댐관리시스템 개선 82
1. 유역환경을 고려한 댐·저수지 종합관리기반·체계 구축 82
2. 지자체 등 지역공동체와의 유기적 협조체제 구축 85
3. 환경친화형 하천사업 시행 86
4. 유역 중심의 하천운영체계 구축 88
4-2. 댐 상류유역 산지관리 98
1. 산림수자원 관리기술 99
2. 산림유역관리 방안 103
4-3. 댐하류 하천 관리 109
1. 하천 재생 방안 109
2. 수변녹지의 조성 118

제5장 결론 123

참고 문헌 125

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