총량관리체계 하에서의 지역환경관리

Title
총량관리체계 하에서의 지역환경관리
Authors
문현주
Co-Author
황석준
Issue Date
2005-12-31
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2005-10
Page
xiii, 229 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19190
Language
한국어
Keywords
Water- Pollution- Total maximum daily load
Abstract
Total Pollution Load Management System (TPLMS) for Water involves determining the target water quality standard for each block of the water systems, computing the maximum allowable load, and regulating or controlling the amount of pollutants discharged from the region within the maximum permissible load. This system is expected to help achieve a balance between preservation and development of a region by permitting regional development necessary solely within the extent in which the target level of water quality is attainable. It is just introduced and is in the stage of implementation in 4 main watersheds in Korea. Identifying socio-economic factors can affect the performance of TPLMS, and the behavioral, and strategical changes in pollution management of regional polluters under TPLMS are critical for an effective application of TPLMS and improvement of system through adjustment of effects (adverse, synergy, and supplementary effect, etc.). This study analyzes the effects of TPLMS in regional environmental management and socio-economic effects, and based on that, it derives the efficient strategies for effective environmental pollution management through TPLMS. Analysis of the structural framework and actual application of TPLMS in the aspect of regional environmental management, investigation of characteristics of regional implementation through the analysis of basic plan and implementation plan, and survey on the effect of TPLMS in regional environmental management contribute to identify the characteristics and issues of regional implementation of TPLMS. Specific effects and issues are analyzed and identified as follows. ① There is a critical conflict of interests in setting a target of water quality for TPLM between central and regional governments as well as between different regions. Absence of flexibility or adjustment scheme of target setting criteria can induce the difficulties in setting target water quality. ② identical implementation of TPLMS, disregarding difference in regional pollution reduction cost, can result in social cost-inefficiency and regional inequity. Systematic approach for efficient pollution reduction in the region (cost-benefit analysis of each reduction methods, establishing optimal mix of pollution management methods, etc) is not applied. ③ In the implementation stage, there are the issues of pollution load allocation, effectiveness of implementation tools, flexibility of implementation, and the problem of overlap or conflict with other regulations applied in the region. ④ Regional difference in institutional and financial capacity of regional government can result in differences in implementation and in undesirable side effects in some region. ⑤ The difference in condition of regional environmental management between regions where TPLMS is applied and those not, and the relationship of TPLMS implementation and regional conflict for water need to be carefully examined. Industrial environmental management in the region is one of the most important factors for regional environmental management, but it has different characteristics and effects on TPLMS implementation. In this study, to identify industrial effect and regional issues of TPLMS implementation, changes of conditions for industrial EM and structural problems are analyzed and industrial polluters are surveyed. Specific effects and issues are analyzed and identified as follows. ① Stronger regulation on industrial pollution under TPLMS can weaken the preferable condition of industrial location in the region. ② Flexibility in establishing optimal pollution management strategies in the region bring uncertainty in regulatory environment for industry. Due to the incomplete information on the cost of reducing industrial pollution, it is difficult to establish optimal industrial pollution management strategies in the region. ③ Implementation of TPLMS can weaken the industries’ incentive to invest in pollution reduction technology development, and small firm’s incentives to site in the industrial park. It also brings inequities in industrial EM environment between firms and between regions. ④ Total Pollution Load Excess Charge is characterized as ’penalty’ rather than economic incentive system, and the applied regional factors can worsen the inequity of regulatory burden between region. Differences in EM condition in each region affect performance and effect of TPLMS implementation. This study also tries to provide implication for differences in regulatory compliance cost among regions with different EM conditions (industrial polluter distribution, population, financial capacity of regional government, etc.) by analyzing regional/industrial EM cost. Based on these analysis of effects and issues of TPLMS implementation, this study suggests policies for efficient and rational implementation of TPLMS. These suggestions are categorized as improvement of regulatory system of TPLMS, facilitating the implementation of TPLMS, and supports for it. Suggestions for improvement of regulatory system of TPLMS and it’s rational implementation are as follows. i) Setting the water quality target in each region should be based on the common consent for the principle of water conservation and usage. As well, the principle of target water quality adjustment, balance between anti-degradation principle and equity of regional development should be considered. ii) Application of safety ratio for TPLM needs to be differentiated. The safety ratio based on the scientific uncertainty can be applied to a total permissible pollution load while the implementation uncertainty needs to be dealt with the amount of necessary pollution reduction in the region. iii) Issued of regional inequity in TPLMS implementation should be concerned. Incentive of not siting in industrial park for small industrial polluters should be decreased with an exception of allocation of additional cost from TPLMS implementation. iv) Total pollution load excess charge system needs to be adjusted to delete the disincentives for a pollution reduction, and to be improved in order to induce optimal regional pollution management through harmonization with discharge charge. v) Concerning allow more flexibility in regional implementation by possible adjustment of total pollution load within region, and adjustment between region through tradable pollution permit or mutual subsidy for pollution reduction investment, etc. vi) Overlap or conflict between relevant regulations should be deleted or harmonized, and industrial pollution management system needs to be restructured corresponding to the conversion to the TPLMS. Suggestions to facilitate the implementation of TPLMS are as follows. i) It is important to establish the principle of load allocation among polluters in region and schemes to encourage participation and compliance facing the issue of inequity between polluters and difficulties of agreement. Agreement to pollution reduction with providing various support under ’voluntary EM agreement’ scheme can be considered. ii) Subsidy scheme for investment of public pollution treatment facilities needs to be modified concerning the regional characteristics to improve effectiveness. Subsidy schemes, based on the financial accountability of regional government, and coverage rate of environmental infrastructure in the region can be considered. iii) Capacity building for implementation of TPLMS and a reduction of administrative cost are also important. Information provision for cost-effect pollution reduction, support of expertise for selection and implementation of optimal pollution reduction strategies, and provision of regional capacity building program are recommendable. Support for effective implementation of TPLM can be considered as follows. i) Collection and utilization of data and information for pollution reduction cost in the region, and the continuous study on the possibility and effectiveness of TPLMS implementation and the effects of it on regional economy and land use are needed. ii) Study and development of non-point source pollution management methods, and the support for pilot projects in the region are also needed. Data collection, which is required for TPLMS implementation, and the study on the effects of TPLMS implementation on regional economy and land use as well as the behavioral and strategical changes of polluters or regional governments are in the priority of further studies. The detailed strategies for the policies, suggested in this study, should be developed as well.

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