동북아 환경협력체계 효율화 방안 연구

Title
동북아 환경협력체계 효율화 방안 연구
Authors
추장민
Co-Author
강광규; 박경애; 김선영; Park; Hyesook; Ge; Chazhong; Tsogtbaatar; Jamsran
Issue Date
2005-12-31
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2005-17
Page
xxi, 295 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19197
Language
한국어
Keywords
International cooperation
Abstract
Since the early 1990s, the environmental deterioration in every Northeast Asian counties and the wide development of environment cooperation at global level has emphasized the importance of the environmental cooperation. Intergovernmental cooperation programs and regional cooperation mechanism among countries in the environmental fields have been developed for solving regional environmental problems after the Rio conference in 1992, and even within research institutes and NGOs, the cooperation programs are created. The cooperation in businesses sector increases steadily according to the development of environmental business market. Except a few bilateral cooperations, however, most of the cooperation programs are not running efficiently. To avoid similar environmental cooperation programs overlapped, those programs in similar functions should be linked and integrated with each other, and this will lead improvement in the efficiency of cooperation mechanism. In this respect, in order to improve the efficiency of cooperation, it is necessary to investigate development plans by analyzing the existing cooperation mechanism comprehensively. This study, thereby, aims to evaluate the effectiveness of environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia and to provide provides more effective ways for environmental cooperation, considering the result of effectiveness evaluation and the demand survey of environmental cooperation from relevant parties in the Northeast Asia. The tool for evaluating the effectiveness of international environmental regime has been used to create an effectiveness evaluation method for individual environmental cooperation cases and cooperation mechanism. The scope of evaluation consists of two main fields, namely, institutional and environmental effectiveness. As well, evaluation objects include individual cooperation cases, integrated cooperation, cooperation mechanism among subjects at domestic level and individual cooperation programs at regional level. The evaluation objects for individual environmental cooperation effectiveness are two variables; outputs and outcomes of cooperation implementation (dependent variables), and influencing factors (independent variables). The evaluation method of independent variables is designed for evaluating individual cooperation case and cooperation mechanism. The evaluation method of dependent variables is designed for individual cooperation case in the respect of institutional effectiveness. Environmental effectiveness is evaluated by analyzing survey results on environmental cooperation in Korea, China, Japan, and Mongolia. Seven individual cooperation cases are selected and evaluated. Comprehensive cooperation cases include NEASPEC, TEMM, and NEAC. The cases, against transboundary air pollution problems ,including dust and sand storm(yellow sand), consist of EANET, LTP and SDS-Net. NOWPOP is selected as Marine environmental cooperation case. Each cooperation case is evaluated, based on its independent and dependent variables. The objects of independent variables consist of problem(agenda) type/character, problem(agenda) solving capacity, and external factors. The dependent variables of each case are only designed to evaluate the institutional effectiveness and the institutional role of cooperation, including learning facilitate, utility modifier, implementation system. From the evaluation result, most of the cases show representative roles of learning facilitate in cooperation process, but some shows low effectiveness. The effectiveness of the whole environmental cooperation is evaluated by analyzing the subjective understanding of relevant persons to environmental cooperation in each country, based on the survey result. Environmental cooperation has achieved very low environmental effectiveness in Northeast Asia, according to survey result since there is no viable and quantitative effects on environmental improvement through cooperation in this sub-region. The comprehensive evaluation for environmental cooperation mechanism at regional level in Northeast Asia is as follows. Suitability of cooperation subject is high level, but diversity of cooperation is also low. Cooperation substances concentrated on regional environmental issue such as transboundary air pollution etc. But most of cooperation among governments have been implementing, based on voluntary participation, no legal binding environmental regime in Northeast Asia. Thus, strengthening enforcement of cooperation is the major challenge of environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia. From the result of effectiveness evaluation and the demand survey, more effective way for improving environmental cooperation is suggested as following in this study. Firstly, the driving keynotes of Northeast environmental cooperation are establishing feasible purpose, selection and concentration on regional major issues and damage prevention, selecting cooperation project base on outcome and efficiency, achieving synergy effect through linkage and integration among individual cooperations, promoting participation of various subjects and closely linkage other regional/global cooperation. Secondly, the strategic purposes of environmental cooperation should be focused on the following directions. First, reform of environmental policy and institution for sustainable development of each in the Northeast Asia country. Second, an establishment of counter measures about major regional environmental issues, such as transboundary air pollution, including acid rain, dust and sand storm, marine pollution and ecosystem change. Third, evolution of institutionalization of environmental cooperation in the Northeast Asia. Thirdly, the importance cooperation fields, prior cooperation projects and institution reform sectors are as follows. First of all, the importance cooperation fields are transboundary air pollution(including acid rain), marine pollution, dust and sand storm. The prior cooperation projects of long-range transboundary air pollution are establishment of transboundary air pollutant monitoring network and cooperation of industry technology for air pollutant reduction such as energy efficiency field. The prior cooperation projects of marine pollution are establishment of marine pollution monitoring and information sharing network, land source water pollution prevention project, marine ecosystem joint survey and conservation project. The prior cooperation projects of dust and sand storm established permanent bilateral joint monitoring and data transmission network with China, forecasting and early warming network in the long-term, desertification prevention project. The prior cooperation fields of institutional reform consist of mainly two fields: a comprehensive cooperation field and a transboundary air pollutant monitoring and assessment field. The role of coordination and relationship identification among NEASPEC, TEMM and NEAC, between LTP and EANET are suggested in the phase approach. Domestic implementation mechanism of each cooperation is identified according to sector and subject. Then, role coordination and relationship identification among 5 main relevant departments, namely, environment, foreign affairs, maritime affairs and fisheries, meteorological agency, forest agency are suggested in environmental cooperation fields. The role of among relevant departments needs to be arranged based on domestic assignment of each department. Also, human resources training, information network establishment, and "Northeast environment report" publication are suggested to improve domestic implementation.

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