대기질 예측 시스템 구축 Ⅱ

Title
대기질 예측 시스템 구축 Ⅱ
Authors
문난경
Co-Author
김순태; Byun; Daewon W.; 이강열
Issue Date
2007-12-28
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2007-19
Page
91 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19328
Language
영어
Keywords
Air- Pollution- Forecasting
Abstract
Abstract At this moment the Clean Air Policy Support System(CAPSS; Korea emissions inventory, 2003, 2004, 2005 released by the Ministry of Environment(MOE)) became available to apply on the air quality modeling works. However, the CAPSS itself can not be used directly as inputs for air quality models. Thus it is important to develop a new tool which allows users to utilize the emissions inventory for their purposes. In order to provide air quality modelers with one way to use the CAPSS emissions inventory, the most updated emissions released by the MOE in Korea, for their air quality modeling works in the region, several tasks were planned and conducted in previous year Last year, we have developed the KEI-KEIPS(Korea Environment Institute-Emissions Inventory Preparation System) to generate air quality model-ready emissions inputs with the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions(SMOKE) using the CAPSS. To do that, we have conducted as a frame work in previous year as follows: 1) The CAPSS emissions inventory was converted to the IDA format for SMOKE processing. Separate input files for area, non-road/on-road mobile, and point sources were prepared with annual emissions rates from the emissions inventory. 2) For point source emissions, monthly emissions files were also prepared to provide the users with an alternative to choose the emissions inputs. Stack parameters are available for each point source emissions to allow vertical distribution with a given meteorological condition. 3) In the CAPSS emissions inventory currently available, around 500 SCCs are being used to characterize the sources. It is desirable to prepare internal databases for spatial allocation, chemical speciation, and temporal allocation during SMOKE processing to better represent the local emissions characteristics in the region for each SCC in the emissions inventory. At this moment, however, the information on the emissions inventory is not fully available. Thus a SCC in the CAPSS emissions inventory was mapped to one of SCCs in the U.S. EPA to use the SMOKE-default cross-reference tables and profiles, assuming that source characteristics in Korea and the U.S. would be similar. 4) To develop spatial surrogates for spatial allocation for a selected domain, a set of GIS shape files over Korea were collected from the U.S. EPA containing the emissions shape file for the region. Then, those GIS files were processed with the MIMS spatial allocator to prepare a spatial allocation factor for each county in the domain. 5) After all the tasks above were done, the CAPSS emissions inventory was processed with SMOKE. To evaluate the CAPSS emissions inventory, SMOKE outputs were preliminarily compared to each pollutant for each state based on the SMOKE report files. In continuation of the tasks accomplished in the previous year, in this year, we worked to improve the KEI-EIPS by updating the emissions inventory used, surrogates for spatial allocation, and other internal databases for chemical and temporal allocations. In addition, it was planned to estimate biogenic emissions using BEIS2(Biogenic Emissions Information System version 2) with land-use and land-cover data for the country to have a complete set of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions for a targeted model domain. The KEI-EIPS has been updated to reflect updates in the emissions inventory. Previous particulate emissions such as PM10 and TSP in the CAPSS emissions inventory included suspended particulate matters, which might have led to unreasonably high PM concentrations in air quality simulations. An alternative emissions inventory without suspended particulate matters from mobile sources has been processed this year to allow user’s choice for performing PM simulations We replaced the SMOKE-default temporal profiles with the CAPSS-specific ones to better represent daily and hourly activity levels in Korea. The temporal profiles updated this year have only weekly and daily temporal profiles. After implementing new temporal profiles, SMOKE outputs showed some differences in mobile sources. In general, the SMOKE default and CAPSS hourly profiles assign more emissions during the early morning(8 AM to 9 AM) and early evening(5 PM to 6 PM) rush hours compared to other hours. However, higher emissions are estimated with the CAPSS profile from 6 AM to 8 AM and lower emissions for 5 PM. During the nighttime after midnight, the SMOKE default profile allocates higher emissions than the CAPSS. Road and emission types in mobile emissions are important to have better spatial allocation and chemical speciation for the source. The information should be supplemented in the CAPSS emissions inventory. Among VOC emissions for mobile sources, the emissions from passenger cars and taxies take ~ 80% of the total. Considering that most of taxies in Korea use LPG as the fuel, the SCC for taxies was revised to have the correct fuel type. For point source emissions, more detailed information would be necessary. For example, solvent types from architecture painting, emission types in petroleum industry such as heating processes, cooling units, flares, and fugitives. As more detailed information becomes available, the better SCC mapping is expected to be. In addition to the anthropogenic emissions from the CAPSS emissions inventory, an approach to estimate biogenic emissions has been incorporated to prepare a complete set of emissions inputs for air quality simulations. In this study, vegetation data estimated by Cho et al.(2007) is used to prepare gridded fractional coverage of each vegetation species. Emission factors are obtained from the previous research by Cho et al.(2007) and also are compared to those in BEIS2. Mobile emissions used the last year included the suspended particulate matters from tire and brake abrasions and others. PM emissions from mobile emissions are separately prepared with and without the suspended particulate matter emissions.

Table Of Contents

- List of Contents -
Chapter 1. Introduction
1. Background
2. Objectives
Chapter 2. Meteorology
1. Configuration
2. Comparisons of MM5 Results to the Observations
Chapter 3. Emissions Inventory
1. Improve the KEI-EIPS to process the CAPSS emissions inventory
1.1 Emissions inventory for suspended particulate matters
1.2 Updates in administration codes for point sources
Chapter 4. Internal Data Update
1. Update surrogates for spatial allocation
1.1 Surrogates for highway emissions
1.2 Surrogates for port emissions
2. Revise internal databases and source classification codes
2.1 Temporal allocation
2.2 Chemical speciation
2.3 Rechecking of SCC mapping
Chapter 5. Biogenic Emissions
1. Estimate biogenic emissions with BEIS2
1.1 Vegetation data
1.2 Emissions factors for each vegetation
1.3 An approach to estimate biogenic emissions
1.4 Emissions factors for BEIS3 processing
Chapter 6. SAPRC99 Chemical Mechanism
1. Alternative Chemical Mechanism - SAPRC99
2. Application of CB4 and SAPRC99 mechanism in CMAQ
2.1 Configuration
2.2 Comparison of CMAQ results between CB4 and SAPRC99 mechanism
Chapter 7. PM Simulation
1. Emissions Processing for PM simulations
2. Process the CAPSS emissions inventory for CMAQ simulations
3. Provide an imputed emissions inventory for better air quality simulations
3.1 Mobile NOx reduction
3.2 Mobile VOC Speciation
Chapter 8. Concluding Remarks
REFERENCES
Appendix A-1. Examples of SCC mapping for area VOC emissions.
Appendix A-2. Examples of SCC mapping for point VOC emissions.
Appendix B-1. Area source emissions for each SCC
Appendix B-2. Non-road mobile source emissions for each SCC
Appendix B-3. On-road mobile source emissions for each SCC
Appendix B-4. Point source emissions for each SCC
Abstract in Korean

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