도시지역 저소득계층 보호를 위한 환경정책 연구 Ⅱ-1

Title
도시지역 저소득계층 보호를 위한 환경정책 연구 Ⅱ-1
Authors
추장민
Co-Author
박창석; 이창훈; 배현주; 신지영; 임유라
Issue Date
2008-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2008-01
Page
465 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19368
Language
한국어
Keywords
Urban poor
Abstract
Abstract Environmental Policy for Low-income People in Urban Areas Ⅱ The purpose of this study is to identify environmental inequity in the distribution of environmental damages, responsibilities, and benefits among different income groups with a focus on low-income residents living in urban areas (Seoul metropolitan area) and to propose an integrated environmental policy to protect the low-income population through considerations to the environment and the socioeconomic characteristics of the population and area. To investigate environmental inequity in micro-geographical terms of exposure and the related health effects of environmental risk, we incorporated environmental factors, socioeconomic factors, and environmentally related disease and found spatial intersections in socioeconomic status and environmental risk. We investigated the concentration profile of airborne hazardous agents at elementary schools and households located in Ansansi, Siheungsi and Seonganmsi. At the elementary schools, indoor and outdoor concentrations of the hazardous agents (PM10, heavy metal (particularly, lead), formaldehyde, TVOCs (Total Volatile Organic Compounds), microbes (bacteria, fungi), nitrogen dioxide) showed no significance on the income levels based upon the Carstairs index and monthly average expenditures. Especially, the PM10 and nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the classrooms were affected by the outdoor concentration of each agent. But formaldehyde, TVOCs and microbes seems to be influenced by indoor sources as well as outdoor sources. In the case of PM10, it could be also affected by the childrens activities, physical education class, sweeping methods, and number of students in the classroom. The most important indoor factor to the concentrations of the indoor TVOC and formaldehyde was the use of oily dyes in art class, followed by the use of wax in the cleaning agents, and the aging of the school building. Indoor concentration profiles of several hazardous agents at households were influenced significantly by income level. That is, the concentrations of most agents, especially, particulate matter (PM10, lead) and bioaerosols (microbes) were significantly higher in the low income households than high income households. The low income class, which shows high concentrations of hazardous agents, were given the following characteristics based upon the results of this study: (1) Generally, they resided in attached housing or multiplex housing, (2) their houses were at the ground level, (3) the houses were located near road or commercial buildings, and (4) the mothers had a job because of poor living conditions. These conditions lead to the poor ventilation, poor housekeeping and more inflow of outdoor pollutants (PMPM10, nitrogen dioxide), and spoiled the indoor environments. The same was found with regard to microbes. TVOCs and formaldehyde concentrations showed higher concentrations in high income households than low income households. It was assumed that high income families tended to buy new furniture in the living room or the children's room than the low income ones. The correlations between allergic rhinitis and indoor bacterial concentrations or TVOCs in the houses were significant and especially, children in low income families had a tendency to catch the disease. Therefore, there were intimate relations among income level in households, concentrations of some pollutants and the children's health status. As a result, this study showed that social and economic status could seriously affect the children's environmental exposure and result in some airborne hazardous related diseases. About six hundred children aged 9 years recruited from 14 schools in three cities underwent a clinical examination (BMI, blood pressure, serum cholesterol profile, serum lead, methacholine challenge test (MCT), skin prick test (SPT). Data on health outcomes, potential confounding variables, and SEP were obtained through questionnaires. We assessed the associations between exposure to each air pollutant and health outcomes. Higher prevalence's of diagnosed asthma, asthma treatment, lifetime or past year AR, AR diagnosis or treatment and current asthma (diagnosis (+) and past year symptom (+)) were reported in 'high exposure to PM10' areas. Moreover, a borderline significant association of MCT positivity with PM10 was observed. SPT positivity was not associated with PM10. In univariate analysis, the prevalence of current asthma was associated with background PM10 and with measured classroom PM10. After adjusting for household income, parental histories of allergic diseases, pupils exposed to high background PM10 and to high classroom PM10 were at great risk for current asthma than controls. Residents in high-deprived areas, their type of house, molds in their home, parental history of asthma or atopy and bronchiolitis episodes in infancy were associated with higher risks of current allergic rhinitis (AR). Moreover, the prevalence of current AR was associated with background NO2 and with measured classroom formaldehyde or total VOCs. After adjusting for household income, and parental history of allergic diseases, students exposed to high classroom formaldehyde were at great risk of current AR than the controls. The prevalence of current atopic dermatitis was associated with background NO2 and with measured classroom molds. Among low-SEP areas, those in lower socioeconomic positions were disproportionately exposed to air pollutants and indoor allergens (eg, molds), which may be related to the increased experience of allergic diseases. This study evaluated whether regional and individual socioeconomic position, as indicated by health insurance premiums, modified the effect of air pollution on hospital admissions. Hospital admission was positively and significantly associated with increased PM10 and Ozone exposure. Residents in lower socioeconomic position districts were associated with stronger adverse effects to ozone when admitted to hospital for respiratory problems. The study examined the relationship between personal socioeconomic status and environmental diseases with surveyed data of Siheungsi, Ansansi, and Seongnamsi districts. We included asthma, atophy, allergy rhinitis, and Pb blood concentrationsas the environmentally related diseases, and household expenditure, educational attainment of the head of the household, subjective health status, and disease history as the personal factors. We examined the impact of monthly household expenditure at the personal level and the Carstairs index at the regional level. The monthly expenditure of households, one of key variables of the study, was not a statistically significant predictor after adjusting the regional Carstairs index in the final model as it did in previous studies. Carstairs was expected to show a linear association with the distance from industrial complexes, but it was not accepted. The subjective pollution index tended to be distributed parallel to the distance from complexes, but the regional ambient pollution index fluctuated. Places near the complexes showed a higher subjective pollution index, but decreased with distance. The evidence showed mixed results. Higher educational attainments were associated with the prevalence of allergy rhinitis and atophy, but asthma did not show any statistical associations. The study predicted that the higher prevalence of allergy rhinitis and atophy might be in part explained by higher diagnosis rates due to frequent utilization of clinical services. The subjective pollution index was also associated to higher prevalence, but the cases were not for allergy rhinitis and atophy. Environmental inequity in responsibilities was investigated by focusing on the distribution impact in term of income regressivity through comparativly analyzing the amount, account of environmental cost paid from residents, and its share in their income among different income groups. The regressive distribution was found for environmental protection expenses such as wastewater treatment charges and the garbage bag fees paid by householders directly in the survey area of this study. Urban parks provide places for people to experience nature and engage in physical activity. For these reasons, urban parks can be an index of environmental benefits. An equity mapping analysis was used to evaluate the area and the accessibility to the urban park by socioeconomic status. This study analyzed the accessibility of park space according to their locations using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Also, qualitative analysis of urban parks was conducted through field studies in the case study area. In Seongnamsi, we found patterns of inequity in the distribution of urban parks and this inequity can cause environmental inequity due to the lack of opportunity to use the urban parks. In Seongnamsi, about 77% or more of the urban parks are located in high socioeconomic status areas. In contrast, 61.69% of the urban parks are located in low socioeconomic status regions in Ansansi. As a result of the qualitative analysis, the quality of the urban park was different depending on the socioeconomic status in Ansansi and Siheungsi. Accessibility to parks and park facilities was better in high socioeconomic districts than low socioeconomic districts in Seongnamsi.

Table Of Contents

차 례
제1부 서 론
제1장 연구의 필요성 및 목적
1. 연구의 배경 및 필요성
2. 연구의 목적
제2장 연구의 범위 및 방법
1. 선행 연구 검토
2. 연구의 내용 및 범위
3. 연구방법 및 연구추진체계
4. 보고서의 구성

제2부 실측조사지역 환경불평등 실태 및 특성
제1장 실측조사지역 기초현황
1. 안산시
2. 시흥시
3. 성남시
제2장 실측조사대상 초등학교, 가구, 학생 실태 및 특성
1. 초등학교 실태 및 특성
2. 실측조사대상 초등학교, 가구, 학생 실태 및 특성
3. 소결
제3장 환경오염노출의 공간분포와 소득계층별 실태 및 특성
1. 환경오염노출 측정방법 및 측정항목
2. 환경오염노출 공간분포 실태 및 특성 : 조사대상 초등학교 실내 · 외 측정결과
3. 조사대상 초등학생의 거주 가구 측정결과
4. 거주지 및 소득계층별 분석
5. 소결
제4장 소득계층 특성에 따른 건강 실태 및 특성
1. 건강상태 조사방법 및 항목
2. 물질결핍지수 및 소득수준에 따른 건강진단 결과
3. 물질결핍지수 및 소득수준에 따른 천식, 아토피 피부염 검사 결과
4. 물질결핍지수 및 소득수준에 따른 혈중 납 농도, 주의력결핍 과잉행동장애 분석결과
5. 알레르기질환 증상 설문조사 결과
6. 소결
제5장 소득계층별 환경보호지출의 가계직접지출 실태 및 특성
1. 분석방법 및 분석자료 구성
2. 분석결과
3. 소결
제6장 사회경제적 지위에 따른 도시공원 공급 실태 및 특성
1. 조사대상 선정 및 연구방법
2. 조사결과
3. 소결

제3부 소득계층별 환경불평등 종합분석
제1장 환경오염노출과 건강상태 상관성 분석
1. 대기오염수준별 알레르기질환 유병률 비교
2. 천식, 알레르기비염, 아토피 피부염과 관련된 요인 분석
3. 수도권 지역 추정 유병률 및 환경요인과의 상관성
4. 소결
제2장 환경요인, 사회경제적 요인 및 건강상태의 상관성 분석
1. 연구방법
2. 건강상태, 환경오염 노출, 사회경제적 상태의 상관성 분석결과
3. 소결
제3장 사회경제적 지위에 따른 대기오염의 호흡기계 질환 입원 영향
1. 연구자료
2. 연구방법
3. 연구결과
4. 소결
제4장 소득계층별 환경보호지출 간접분담 실태 및 특성
1. 분석방법
2. 분석자료
3. 분석결과
4. 소결
제5장 사회경제적 지위에 따른 자연녹지 접근성과 도시공원 공급 비교
1. 저소득계층의 자연녹지 접근성 분석
2. 사회경제적 지위에 따른 도시공원공급과 자연녹지접근성 비교
3. 소결

제4부 정책적 시사점 및 결론
제1장 소득계층별 환경불평등의 정책적 시사점
1. 환경피해 불평등의 정책적 시사점
2. 환경책임 불평등의 정책적 시사점
3. 환경혜택 불평등의 정책적 시사점
4. 환경피해 · 환경책임·환경혜택 불평등의 상호 관련성

제2장 결 론
참고 문헌
부록 1 가구 및 아동조사 조사표
부록 2 아동보건의식 행태 조사표
부록 3 월평균 지출 150만원 미만만 대상으로 한 설문 결과
부록 4 조사지역 공원현황
Abstract

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