환경성을 고려한 태양광,풍력발전소 입지선정 가이드라인

Title
환경성을 고려한 태양광,풍력발전소 입지선정 가이드라인
Authors
권영한
Co-Author
김지영; 이민주
Issue Date
2008-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
정책보고서 : 2008-02
Page
vii, 157 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19399
Language
한국어
Abstract
Abstract Environmental Considerations in the Siting of Solar and Wind Power Plants The development and application of renewable energy technology is an immediate global task to combat the effects of green house gases and drawdown of fossil fuel reserves. Of all the renewable energy technologies being investigated, solar and wind power are the most popular. In order to increase usage and support improved development, solar and wind power plants have been constructed in Korea according to government policies. For solar energy, much of what has been constructed has not destroyed the natural environment because developed areas have been used. However, some cases of public conflict regarding the construction of solar plants have arisen, especially in Jeon-ra province. With regard to wind power, because wind energy sites are usually located on mountain ridges, such as the Baekdu great ridge, undesirable changes can be expected in the natural environment because the areas have well established ecosystems. Therefore, environmental issues related to the sustainability of sites and the appropriateness of the planning should be considered through strategic site selection for both solar and wind power plants. The purpose of this study is to suggest guidelines for site selection and construction of solar and wind power plants by analyzing sites in terms of mid- and long-term strategies and environmental considerations. The methodologies used in this study are as follows: 1) We used references and cases to introduce general facts on the concepts, usage, and current policies regarding solar and wind power energy utilization. 2) We carried out site surveys and environmental impact statement reviews to investigate possible environmental issues caused by the construction and operation of solar and wind facilities. 3) We compared the amounts of CO2 that would increase or decrease when a solar plant is constructed in a forested area. 4) We collected opinions from relevant experts through meetings and interviews to suggest desirable guidelines for the site selection of both solar and wind power plants and to provide guidance to policy makers with regard to the planning and construction of wind and solar power projects. Sites where solar power plants can be constructed are diverse, and include buildings, used areas, open spaces, and forested mountains. If construction is carried out in forested mountain areas, undesirable damage to the natural environment will most certainly occur. When the solar facilities, service roads, and power lines are established, earth changes and the destruction of natural vegetation (pine and oak tree communities) are inevitable. In addition, landslides, and environmental effects caused by physical and chemical factors could occur and prove problematic. In order to reduce the chances of social conflict and to reduce the effect the facilities would have on scenic views, the solar plants should be distributed in consistency, and the width of the service road should be minimized. With regard to the power lines, they could be buried and the damaged forest could be restored after completion. In addition, if deforestation occurs during construction, sequestration of CO2 by the forest will be lost and would contradict the idea that solar energy reduces the generation of CO2. Therefore, sites for the construction of solar plants should avoid areas rich in natural vegetation. The most desirable sites would be 1) developed areas, including rooftops or walls, roads, airports, vacant buildings, open areas, etc. 2) open spaces, including coastal areas, unused salt farms, unused agricultural land, landfills, beaches, riverbanks, paddy fields, etc. For wind power sites, construction would require roads connecting each plant, an approaching road, and power lines. Such requirements could lead to the destruction of old forests, natural habitat, and the degradation of corridors used by endangered and rare species, the fragmentation of the ecosystem during construction and operation, changes to the composition of species, the reduction of biodiversity, the introduction of alien species, the destruction of scenic views, and birds colliding with the wind power stations. These undesirable impacts are more obvious when power plants are located in sensitive habitats, such as the Baekdu mountain area. Sites for wind power plants are limited, but suitable sites include high mountain ridges and coastal regions. Plans to construct large scale wind power projects in the ocean have yet to be determined and shall be reviewed at a later date. According to the national strategy to enlarge wind power utilization, we need to review various sites as well as to develop various technologies applicable to those sites. In addition, those technologies should have the capability of being applied in other countries. Because harnessing renewable energy has become both environmentally and economically significant, it is important to promote the utilization of solar and wind power by suggesting environmentally suitable project sites and proposing guidelines that consider environmental issues. Furthermore, a systematic review process regarding strategic environmental assessment is required for siting, construction, and operation of renewable energy projects.

Table Of Contents

차 례
제1장 서론
1. 연구의 배경 및 목적
2. 연구 내용 및 방법
가. 태양광 및 풍력발전소에 대한 현황 파악
나. 입지에 대한 연구 및 환경적인 문제점 분석
다. 발전소 건설로 인한 CO2 감축효과
라. 입지선정 가이드라인 제안
3. 신·재생에너지의 현황 및 정책 개황
가. 신·재생에너지의 정의
나. 신·재생에너지의 현황
다. 신·재생에너지의 정책 개황
제2장 태양광, 풍력발전소의 국내·외 입지 현황
1. 태양광발전소
가. 국내 현황
나. 국외 현황
2. 풍력발전소
가. 국내 현황
나. 국외 현황
제3장 태양광, 풍력발전소의 입지와 환경문제
1. 태양광발전소 입지에 따른 환경문제
가. 태양광발전소의 입지 유형과 환경문제
나. 산지에 건설되는 태양광발전소의 추이
다. 태양광발전소의 산지입지에 따른 환경문제
라. 산지 입지의 환경문제에 대한 사례
마. 태양광 모듈 설치로 인한 가능한 위험성 - 중금속
2. 풍력발전소 입지에 따른 환경문제
가. 풍력발전소의 입지유형과 환경문제
나. 풍력발전소의 산지 입지에 따른 환경문제
다. 풍력발전과 조류의 추돌사(死)
라. 발전시설 설치에 따른 생태계 훼손
제4장 태양광의 입지와 저탄소 녹색성장
1. 벌목에 따른 CO2 흡수와 저장량 감소에 대한 국제적 추세
가. 산림 현황
나. 벌목에 따른 CO2 흡수와 저장량 방출에 대한 국제적 추세
2. 산림 훼손에 따른 CO2 방출 및 태양광발전소 건설로 인한 CO2 감축효과
가. CO2 완화량 측정
나. 태양광발전으로부터 생산된 전력량의 CO2 저감효과
다. 발전소 건설 당해연도의 CO2 감축효과
3. 산림의 공익적 기능
4. 산림의 생태적 기능
제5장 환경을 고려한 입지선정 방향 및 가이드라인
1. 태양광발전소 입지선정 가이드라인
가. 입지선정 방향
나. 정책적 방향
2. 풍력발전소 입지선정 가이드라인
가. 입지선정 방향
나. 정책적 방향
제6장 결론
참 고 문 헌
부록 1 태양광발전소 입지 현황, 환경적 영향 및 저감방안
부록 2 산지 입지로 양호한 산림 훼손 및 사회적 갈등 유발 사례(태양광발전)
부록 3 언론, 인터넷 매체 등
부록 4 수상 태양광발전소 프로젝트
부록 5 태양광발전소 현황(가동 중)
부록 6 사업 추진 중인 태양광발전소 현황(허가~상업운전 개시 전)
부록 7 풍력발전소 입지현황, 환경적 영향 및 저감방안
부록 8 산지 입지로 양호한 산림 훼손 및 사회적 갈등 유발 사례(풍력발전)
부록 9 ▽▽ 풍력단지 대상지 현장조사 결과
부록 10 훼손되는 식생에 따른 CO2 완화량 계산
부록 11 풍력발전소 현황
부록 12 태양광발전소 입지선정 가이드라인(안)
부록 13 풍력발전소 입지선정 가이드라인(안)
Abstract

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