상하수도부문 전략적 재정계획 - 한국의 사례

Title
상하수도부문 전략적 재정계획 - 한국의 사례
Authors
문현주
Issue Date
2008-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
정책보고서 : 2008-05
Page
iv, 73 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19402
Language
영어
Abstract
Abstract In the water and sanitation sector (WSS), finance is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for delivering water services. Attracting sustainable flows of finance of the right type depends on thorough reforms in the governance of this sector. Financing the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for WSS in developing countries is likely to entail a doubling of investment requirements over recent levels. What is less widely appreciated is that the cost of maintaining and modernizing existing systems, which are scheduled to grow rapidly, will grow exponentially, and already greatly exceed the annual cost of extending the networks. The development of the water supply and sanitation sector in developing countries is often driven by ambitious political goals while it is rarely grounded on sound strategic financial planning. The costs of reaching those ambitious political goals are rarely evaluated, compared with the expected revenues of the sector and policies adjusted accordingly (including issues of service levels to be provided, tariffs, central budget allocations, and delivery schedules). This results in large financing gaps that undermine the implementation of sector development plans. An answer to this problem is provided through financing strategies. A financing strategy can be considered a product, a methodology or, more fundamentally, an approach. Through the preparation of a financing strategy, different stakeholders evaluate the financial gaps under baseline conditions (costing the achievement of sector targets and assessing the availability of financial resources) and discuss options to close it (both by increasing finance and reducing costs). The preparation of a financing strategy, thus, requires both a transparent policy dialogue framework and a sound analytical base that can be accepted by all stakeholders. Korean experiences of Strategic Financing (SF) in WSS are provided as reference for other countries. The implications of the Korean cases provided are summarized as follows. o It might be noted that there was a defect in planning the harmonized facility plan. In the case of sewerage, investment was focused on treatment facilities rather than on sewerage collection networks. With this imbalance in the facility plan, the effects on sewerage treatment have not shown significant improvements as planned. o Moreover, full cost pricing has not reached its target as planned due to a lack of enforcement at the regional level, for both political reasons and factors related to affordability for regional users. Many local governments have their own schemes for ensuring affordability for low income consumers. o Subsidy policies and their application to different sub-sectors are fully transparent and consistent. Over time, central government support to the sector has declined, and financing has shifted to polluters, water users, and local governments. o Public Sector Participation (PSP) is more acceptable, and widespread, for wastewater than for drinking water. Furthermore, PSP in stand-alone units like treatment works seems more acceptable than the ownership or operation of distribution systems. For reference, the reviews of other countries’ cases are provided. It reviews the diverse financial strategies of OECD countries and summarizes the lessons learned by them. It also summarizes the different features of the financial strategies of major regions and countries. Some of the main lessons learned from recent experience with Financial Strategies (FSs) can be distilled as follows oStart with clarity over the objectives and ambitions of the financing strategy in order to manage expectations and design the process accordingly. oSet targets consistent with policy and separate policy and technical considerations oThe structure of the FS should reflect the institutional system of the sector, since this is where the strategy gets implemented. oConsider the full life cycle of financing needs oThe FS needs strong anchoring in WSS institutions, and "ownership" by the Ministry of Finance oSimplicity is the key to making the FS easy to implement oFocus on ease of updating and incentives for use. oUse models to support decisions not replace them oDon’t over plan. Planning skills are often the scarcest resources oSeize the opportunity for innovative fund raising oUse the FS to improve governance and strengthen regulations oInclude an emphasis on sector performance, transparency, and value for money alongside the need to increase funding levels

Table Of Contents

Contents
FOREWORD
Abstract
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Financing Strategies for Water Supply and Sanitation
1.Water and Sanitation Financing
1.1The Features of Financing WSS
1.2The Cost Structure of WSS
1.3Existing Sources of Finance
1.4Solutions for the Under-financing of WSS
2.Financing Strategy for Water and Sanitation Services
2.1What is a Financing Strategy?
2.2Rationale of the Financing Strategy
2.3Objectives of the Financing Strategies
2.4Outcomes from Financing Strategies
Chapter 3. Financing the Development of the Korean Water and Sanitation Sector
1.Water and Sanitation Sector in Korea
2.Sector Financing
2.1Basic Financial Description of the Sector
2.2Water Tariffs and Household Affordability
2.3Budgetary Resources
2.4The Role of International Solidarity
3. Strategic Financial Planning for the Sector.
3.1Setting and Costing Objectives
3.2Deciding on the Share of the Ultimate Sources of Finance
3.3The Long-term Strategy for the Resource Allocation Related to the Water Supply Field
3.4Lessons Learned from the Korean Case
Chapter 4. Experiences of Other Countries and Implications
1.OECD Countries’ Experiences
2.Implications from the Cases of Other Countries
2.1 The Difference between Major Regions and Countries
2.2Main Features of WSS Financing in Each Countries’ Cases
Chapter 5. Summary and Conclusions
References
Appendix 1. Contents and Instruction for Providing Country’s Experience of SF in WSS
Appendix 2. The FEASIBLE Model
Abstract in Korean

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