도시지역 저소득계층 보호를 위한 환경정책 연구 Ⅲ-1

Title
도시지역 저소득계층 보호를 위한 환경정책 연구 Ⅲ-1
Authors
추장민
Co-Author
김종호; 표민경; 배현주; 임유라
Issue Date
2009-12-31
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2009-01
Page
233 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19407
Language
한국어
Keywords
Urban poor
Abstract
Environmental Policyfor Low-income People in Urban Areas Ⅲ The purpose of this study is to identify environmental inequities in the distribution of environmental benefits, obligations, and damages among different income groups, with a focus on low-income residents in urban areas (i.e. the Seoul metropolitan area). The study also proposes an integrated environmental policy to protect the low-income population in consideration of the environmental and socioeconomic characteristics of the population and region. The results of environmental monitoring from 2008 to 2009 showed that PM10 was significantly associated with regional location, parental education, and average monthly expenses. There were close relationships among income levels in households, concentrations of some pollutants and children's health status. As a result, this study clearly demonstrated that social and economic status could seriously affect children's environmental exposure, and their vulnerability to certain related, airborne hazardous diseases. In univariate analysis, methacholine challenge test(MCT) positivity and skin prick test(SPT) positivity were not associated with regional and individual socioeconomic position(SEP). Decreased pulmonary functions were associated with lower parental educational level, residence in a socieconomically deprived area, or proximity to an industrial complex. Students with high regional and individual SEP were more likely to suffer allergic rhinitis. However, prevalence of asthma and atopic dermatitis was not associated with regional and individual SEP. After adjusting for parental history of allergic diseases and bronchiolitis episodes in infancy, students exposed to cockroaches etc. in their home were associated with higher risk of asthmatic symptoms than control groups. Moreover, students exposed to high background SO2 were more likely to suffer atopic dermatitis than controls. After adjusting for household income, parental history of allergic diseases, and bronchiolitis episodes in infancy, residents with mold in their home were associated with higher risks of allergic rhinitis symptoms than controls. We assessed the relationship between individual-based exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and allergic diseases in Korean elementary school children. The results of this study suggest that distances from arterial roads and the length of arterial roads around homes are associated with an increased risk of allergic diseases in school children. We included asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis as environment related diseases, and used household expenditures, educational status, subjective health status(SAH), and disease history as personal factors. We also included the distance between roads and the house, the presence of mold in the house, and the presence of smokers in the family as environmental factors, and used the composite deprivation index of the district as a regional factor. Environmental inequity in obligations accruing to households was investigated by focusing on the distribution of impact in terms of income regressivity through comparative analysis of the environmental costs paid by residents, and the share of income taken thereby among different income groups. A regressive distribution was found to exist for environmental protection expenses such as wastewater treatment charges and garbage bag fees (i.e. expenses paid for municipally marked garbage bags that used to subsidize waste collection) paid by householders directly in the survey area for this study. An equity mapping analysis was used to evaluate the area and accessibility to urban parks by socioeconomic status. This study analyzed the accessibility of park space according to location using a Geographic Information System(GIS). In Bucheon-si, Anyang-si, Goyang-si and Gunpo-si, we found patterns of inequity in the distribution of urban parks, and such inequity can cause environmental inequity due to the lack of opportunity to use the urban parks. In conclusion, to protect the low income classes and secure their environmental equity, four policies will need to be institutionalized and executed. First, institutionalization of legislation related to the Environmental Policy Act definitely has to be promoted. Second, tailored policies that designate "Protected Areas" near local schools or housing estates based on underlying communities with high population density and low income should be promoted, and such policies should be further adapted to elderly residents and single parent households etc. to improve the Indoor Environment by addressing insufficient minimum housing standards. Third, integrated policy and business in conjunction with energy, urban/housing, and welfare policy will need to be promoted. In particular, projects to improve the indoor environment as part of housing improvements for low-income residents need to be promoted in line with energy, housing, urban development and welfare policy. Fourth, to strengthen the capabilities of low-income residents, eco-friendly businesses that interacting with the environment are needed that can generate income while simultaneously responding to environmental issues. Such policies can provide support and aid for low-income residents, and can be promoted and executed in phases in consideration of specific conditions and feasibility. For example, promoting a business strategy and interactive business, including support for capacity building, energy, housing, and welfare for low-income residents, and then implementing policy strategy, through ratification of policy would be an effective and efficient means to promote better outcomes for low income earners.

Table Of Contents



제1부 서 론
제1장 연구의 필요성 및 목적
1. 연구의 배경 및 필요성
2. 연구의 목적
제2장 연구의 범위 및 방법
1. 선행 연구 검토
2. 연구의 내용 및 범위
3. 연구방법 및 연구추진체계
4. 보고서의 구성
제2부 환경피해 불평등 실태 및 특성 분석
제1장 수도권지역 도시공간구조와 환경관련시설 분포 및 환경불평등 특성 분석
1. 수도권지역의 도시공간구조의 변화
2. 도시 공간구조 변화와 환경불평등
3. 소 결
제2장 수도권지역 환경오염노출 및 환경불평등 특성 분석
1. 사회경제적 지위에 따른 대기오염농도 공간분포 실태 및 특성
2. 실측조사지역 가구의 환경오염노출과 환경불평등 실태 및 특성
3. 소 결
제3장 수도권지역 주민의 건강상태 및 환경불평등 특성 분석
1. 설문조사 및 건강검진을 통한 환경불평등 실태 분석
2. 실측조사지역 측정가구의 환경오염노출과 건강상태와의 관계
3. 가구와 주요도로와의 거리 및 주요도로 총길이에 따른 유병률 분석
4. 소 결
제3부 환경요인, 사회경제적 요인 및 건강상태의 상관성 종합분석
제1장 수도권지역 주민의 건강상태에 영향을 미치는 환경요인 및 사회경제적 요인의 특성 분석
1. 연구방법
2. 연구결과
3. 소 결
제2장 개인 및 지역의 사회경제적 지위에 따른 대기오염의 건강영향
1. 사회경제적 지위에 따른 대기오염의 천식 입원 영향
2. 사회경제적 지위에 따른 대기오염의 호흡기계 질환 입원 영향
3. 소 결
제4부 환경책임 및 환경혜택 불평등 실태 및 특성 분석
제1장 소득계층 특성에 따른 환경책임 및 환경불평등 특성 분석
1. 소득계층별 환경보호지출의 가계직접지출 실태 및 특성
2. 소득계층별 환경보호지출의 간접분담 실태 및 특성
3. 소 결
제2장 수도권지역 도시공원 공급 및 환경불평등 특성 분석
1. 도시유형에 따른 도시공원 공급 실태 및 분석
2. 실측조사지역 공원이용현황 설문조사 분석
3. 공원녹지예산과 사회경제적 지위와의 상관성 분석
4. 사회경제적 지위에 따른 도시공원 공급과 자연녹지의 접근성 비교분석
5. 소 결
제5부 저소득계층 보호를 위한 환경정책 분석 및 개발
제1장 소득계층간 환경불평등의 정책적 시사점
1. 환경피해 불평등의 정책적 시사점
2. 환경책임 불평등의 정책적 시사점
3. 환경혜택 불평등의 정책적 시사점
4. 환경피해 · 환경책임 · 환경혜택 불평등의 상호 관련성
제2장 환경불평등 관련 기존정책 평가
1. 선진 각국의 관련정책 현황
2. 국내 환경불평등 관련 기존정책 평가
3. 환경불평등 관련 기존정책에 대한 평가
제3장 저소득계층 보호 및 환경형평성 보장 정책방안
1. 환경불평등의 정책구조 분석
2. 정책 추진 여건의 SWOT 분석
3. 저소득계층 인구동향 분석, 분류체계 개발 및 범위 설정
4. 저소득계층 보호 우선대상지역 선정
5. 저소득계층 보호 및 환경형평성 보장 정책제안
제6부 요약 및 결론
제1장 요 약
1. 환경피해 불평등 실태 및 특성
2. 환경요인, 사회경제적 요인 및 건강상태의 상관성
3. 환경책임 및 환경혜택 불평등 실태 및 특성
4. 저소득계층 보호를 위한 환경정책 분석 및 개발
제2장 결 론
참고문헌
Abstract
3차년도 실측조사지역 초등학교 학생의 건강상태와 환경실태에 대한 가구조사 결과
3차년도 실측조사지역 환경오염노출과 환경불평등 특성 분석
3차년도 실측조사지역 주민의 건강상태 및 환경불평등 특성 분석
3차년도 실측조사지역 아동의 환경성 질환에 영향을 미치는 요소 분석
연구대상지별 도시공원 공급 및 사회경제적 지위군 구분 현황
2, 3차년도 실측조사지역의 공원만족도 분석결과
정책 관련 전문가 설문조사 분석결과
정책 관련 전문가 설문 조사표
가구 및 아동조사 조사표

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