셀렝게유역 통합물환경관리모델 개발 연구 II

Title
셀렝게유역 통합물환경관리모델 개발 연구 II
Authors
추장민
Issue Date
2009-07-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
정책보고서 : 2009-02
Page
356 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19439
Language
한국어
Abstract
This project was launched in order to develop an integrated water management model on the Selenge River Basin. This report describes the results of phase Ⅱ, and includes the water environment analysis, water management system analysis, and special areas study to analyze the Driving force Pressure State Impact - Response factors of water environment in hot-spots of Selenge River basin. International Workshop, working group meetings, and an international excursion were also executed. As the results of analysis, some sites indicated pollution levels were affecting wastewater treatment plants and mining. The highest SS were at SM-10, and SM-21, it measured at start of the irrigation which has a dark stream water because of rain and dischargepoint from the nearby gold mining site in Mongolian part. Main sources of pollution identified in Mongolia were the Zaamar gold placer zone, the upstream of Orkhon, and the Shar River gold mine, population/settlements, agriculture and WWTPs. Much pollution was observed in the stream in the Selenge River Basin Modonkul stream which was affected by the tailing dump of Dzhidinsky Tungsten-Molybdenum Complex in the Republic of Buryatia, Russian Federation. Because of the closure of large mining enterprise without any reclaiming actions, their territories are considered the main pollution sources (non-point sources). Water management in Mongolia is undertaken under very complex circumstance. Main issues to improve the water management in Mongolia are identified as follows: 1) The government should take required measures to privatize engineered wells to herders that would then be able to own the wells, including maintenance and operation 2) The government agency responsible for water issues should be under the direct responsibilities of the prime minister 3) Available funding is not adequate for these activities and water administration and organizational issues should be carefully considered, particularly in light of further water demand from developing industry and service sectors 4) It is a mis-conceptualization if the institutional organization of water sector is only represented by government structure 5) The Law on Water needs to be developed and approved as a law package including relevant laws such as the Law on Mineral Springs and Water Fees, Law on Water Supply for Urban Areas and Use of Water Treatment, Law on Fees for Protection and Restoration of Water Resources. The basic problems of a water management in the Russian Federation are as follows: 1) Unsatisfactory conditions of economic-drinking water supply connected with poor quality of water provided to the population because of pollution on surface and underground waters, insufficient use of modern methods of clearing of potable water, an unsatisfactory condition of water supply systems; 2) Prodigal water use with rather high specific expense of water on unit production and on economic-drinking needs of city dweller; 3) Unsatisfactory on water quality because standard quality clears only about 10 % demanding sewage treatment, and also with a significant amount of polluting substances arriving in water environment with a superficial drain from reservoirs; 4) Increase of material damages from harmful influence of water in connection with deterioration of the technical condition of protective construction, decrease in volumes of operational and preventive action, deterioration of forecasts; 5) Deterioration of technical conditions of basic production assets of water management as a result of decrease in investment activity; 6)Low system effectiveness of government water management as a result of continuous reorganization of the structure of management, loss of the material resources necessary for monitoring of water environemnt considerable reduction of financing of scientific researches and design. Relevant issues also have been generated in transboundary water management between Mongolia and the Russian Federation. Within the framework of the Agreement between two countries, some cooperation activities for improvement of water use and protection in Selenge River Basin have been implemented. At the same time, in the execution of the Agreement there are unresolved questions. First, the Agreement involves the General Scheme of complex use and protection of water on the entire Selenge River Basin. In connection with the absence of financing, the work has not been executed. Specifications of water quality in the Russian Federation and Mongolia differ among themselves. In this case it is expedient to use standards which are available both in the Russian Federation, and in Mongolia, as well as international standards as they can promote definition of target parameters of a condition of water environment depending on the concrete situation, the kind of use of water resources and the corresponding requirements. Four areas from each country are considered particular hotspots for analyzing influence factors on water quality and managementby using DPSIR framework. These are the Tuul River at Zaamar Gold Mining zone and the Tuul River downstream area of Ulaanbaatar from settlements waste water treatment plant in Mongolia. In the Russian Part, the special area is considered the Modonkul Stream which is located in the Zakamansky district and polluted by filtrated water from the tailing dump of the unused Tungsten-Molybdenum Mining Complex (closed 15 years ago) and the WWTP of Zakamensk settlement. The last works of this project will be implemented in phase 3 in this project. The Project objective of phase 3 is to develop and evaluate the Integrated Water Management Model on the Selenge River Basin based on the DPSIR/PSR analysis results of water quality and water resources in the Russian Federation, Mongolia, and whole river basin.

Table Of Contents


FOREWORD
Abstract
ChapterⅠ Introduction
1. Objectives and Research Components
2. Summary of Phase I Research
3. Research Method: DPSIR frame work
4. History of this Project
5. Structure of Report
Chapter II DPSI Analysis on Water Quality and Resourcesin SRB
1. Driving forces on Water Environment
A. Driving force Indicators
B. Issue Identification of Driving forces
2. Pressure on Water Environment
A. Pressure Indicators
B. Issue Identification of Pressure
3. State of Water Environment
A. State indicators
B. Water Quality Measurement and Analysis
C. Issue Identification of State
4. Impact of Water Environment
A. Impact Indicators
B. Issue Identification of Impact
5. Transboundary Issues
A. Background
B. Transfer of pollutants
C. Use of water resources in the SRB
D. Inter-state regulation of the use and protection of the SRB
ChapterⅢ Responses on Water Quality and Resources in SRB: Focusing on the Water Management System of Mongolia and Russia
1. Mongolian Water Management System
A. Laws and Regulations for Water management
B. Institutional arrangement for Water Management
C. National/Local Programs, Plans and Projects of Water Management
D. Infrastructure for water management
E. Overall Evaluation and Issue Identification
2. Russian Water Management System
A. Laws and Regulations for Water management
B. Institutional arrangement for Water Management
C. Administration Structure for Water management
D. National/Local Programs, Plans and Projects of Water Management Programs, projects and actions for Lake Baikal protection
E. Infrastructure for the water management
F. Overall Evaluation and Issue Identification
3. Transboundary Water Management System
A. Development of Mongolian-Russian Transboundary Agreements
B. Institutional Structure of agreement
C. Joint activities under agreements
D. Overall Evaluation and Issue Identification
ChapterⅣ The DPSIR Analysis on Hot Spot Areas in SRB
1. DPSIR Analysis on hot spot area in Mongolian part
A. Ulaanbaatar_Tuul River Downstream
B. Zaamar, Soum, Tuul River at Gold Mining Area
2. DPSIR Analysis on hot spot areas in Russia
A. Zakamensk_Modongul Stream
ChapterⅤ Summary and Conclusion

References
Appendix 1. Data and Results of Water Quality Analysis.
Appendix 2. Socio-economic Statistic data of Russia
국문요약(Abstract in Korean)

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