환경위해성 평가를 위한 기초자료 확립과 심사사례 분석

Title
환경위해성 평가를 위한 기초자료 확립과 심사사례 분석
Authors
박용하
Co-Author
박정규; 방상원; 김정원; 윤정호; 정다운; 김남범; 원신원
Issue Date
2002-06-30
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19568
Language
한국어
Abstract
Attempt to analyze the domestic and international materials and data, to build up the database, and to systemize the decision-making factors for risk assessment of Living modified organisms (LMOs) were performed. To achieve the objectives of the research, the followings were carried out: i) to collect and analyze the domestic and foreign documents including a case of environmental release of the LMOs; ii) to build up a database system for environmental release of and the risk assessment of LMOs; iii) to develop a computer-using risk assessment model of LMOs based on analysis of various computer model systems developed in the UNIDO and the Edmonds Institute; iv) to build up a website which includes a database system developed and information gathered for this research. Two major points we need to consider from the case study of the risk assessment of a living modified microorganisms carried out in the United Kingdom: i) a process of risk assessment of living modified microorganisms carried out in the United Kingdom is similar to that of United States and Japan, however, an advisory committee for risk assessment of LMOs is organized periodically and decide the degree of the risk of the living modified microorganisms based on experties of the committee members; ii) an applicant who developed the LMO and the advisory committee members try to solve the problem together, if any, from the initial experimental design. Based on the case study of the risk assessment systems of LMOs performed in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and Japan, constructing the rational administration structure for assessing the risk assessment of LMOs for releasing in open environment would not be a limitation in Korea. Correcting the basic system errors and changing the flow of the DTree model of UNIDO, and adding a part of the program including the assessing the virus and insect resistance of LMO were performed to develop the model for risk assessment of LMO. Also, we add the ecological data and information of four LMOs which exist and might appear in Korean market soon to help the potential model users. We applied the living modified two soybean cultivars which are insect resistant and herbicide tolerant, and found our computer-using model working. We do not claim our model is completed because that this model do not deal with all factors which might appear in environmental when we apply certain LMOs in open environment. However, our model is the first attempt to assess environmental risk of the various LMOs in Korea and this approach will dedicate to develop a better computer-using risk assessment and user-friendly model in the future. The Website (ICRA, Information Center for Risk Assessment of LMO: http://www.kei.re.kr/lmo) specializing in environmental risk assessment of LMO was constructed for this research. The ICRA provides a wide range of information and materials related to LMOs' risk assessment. Information of the website includes various website information which provides risk assessment database of the OECD, UNEP, UNIDO and advanced counties. We hope the ICRA will be useful and developed better with good management system.

Table Of Contents

I. Introduction 18
1. Background 18
2. Objectives 19
3. Materials and Methods 20

II. Status of field Test and Commercialization of LMO 22
1. Field Test: Global Status 22
2. Field Test: Major countries 24
2.1 United States of America 24
2.1.1 Genetically Modified Crops 24
2.1.2 Genetically Modified Microorganisms 28
2.1.3 Genetically Modified Insect 29
2.2 Canada 30
2.3 Europe 31
3. Commercialization 35
3.1 Global Status 35
3.2 Korea 40

III. Case study: Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganism 42
1. Review of Current Case Study 42
2. Risk Assessment of Geneically Modified Rhizobium leguminosaum with Activated β-glucuronidase 46
2.1. Rhizobium 46
2.2. Procedure of Risk Assessment of United Kingdom 47
2.2.1 Application 50
2.2.2 Field Test and Report after Approval 52
2.3. Official Document of Environmental Risk Assessment 53
2.4. Review of Risk Assessment Application by Government of United Kingdom 57
2.5. Discussion 62

IV. Management of Database 63
1. OECD 63
1.1 Biosafety 63
1.2 Information Sharing 64
1.3 Field Test and Product Data 66
2. Europe Union 69
3. United States of America 75
3.1 Database of Field Test 76
3.1.1 USDA/APHIS 76
3.1.2 EPA 80
4. Canada 82
5. Korea 85

V. Case Study on Environmental Risk Assessment Model of LMO 87
1. Concept of Environmental Risk Assessment of LMO 87
2. Case Study 88
2.1 Edmonds Institute 89
2.2 Dtree 92
2.2.1 Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Crop 94
2.2.2 Environmental Risk Assessment of Herbicide Resistant Crop 98
2.3 Risk Assessment Searching Mechanism of ICGEB 99
2.4. Analysis of Existent Models 102

VI. Construction of Pilot Website 104
1. Introduction 104
2. Contents and Construction 105
2.1 Information Center for Risk Assessment of LMO 105
2.2 Environmental Risk Assessment of LMO 106
2.3 Biosafety Protocol 107
2.4 Reference of Environmental Risk Assessment of LMO 108
2.5 Status of LMO Products 110
3. Environmental Risk Assessment System of LMO 112
3.1 Introduction 112
3.2 Constitution and Logic of Risk Assessment System 113
3.2.1 Comprehensive Risk Assessment System 113
3.2.2 Environmental Risk Assessment System of LMO 117
3.3 Feature and Limitation of Risk Assessment System 127
4. Improvement and Management of Website 132

VII. Conclusion 133
Abbreviation 136
Reference 138
Appendix 142
Appendix 1. List of LMO Products 142
Appendix 2. Field Test Data of Europe Union 147
Appendix 3. Field Test Data of Canada 149
Appendix 4. Field Test Data of Genetically Modified Microorganisms of Unites States 152
Appendix 5. Result of Dtree's Comprehensive Risk Assessment 180
Appendix 6. Biology of Major Genetically Modified Crop 186
6.1 Soybean 186
6.2 Corn 194
6.3 Rice 206
6.4 Potato 215

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