자동차 배출가스 종합대책에 [95_수탁]

DC Field Value Language
dc.contributor.author 한화진 -
dc.date.accessioned 2017-07-05T01:35:43Z -
dc.date.available 2017-07-05T01:35:43Z -
dc.date.issued 19951201 -
dc.identifier.uri http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19584 -
dc.identifier.uri http://library.kei.re.kr/dmme/img/001/003/001/[95_수탁]배출가스종합대책(한화진).pdf -
dc.language 한국어,영어 -
dc.title 자동차 배출가스 종합대책에 [95_수탁] -
dc.type 수탁연구 -
dc.description.keyword 대기환경 -
dc.description.bibliographicalintroduction Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs) generate ozone through photochemical reactions in the air. Ozone itself is a secondary pollutant. In the workplace VOCs may give rise to offensive odor and generate harmful substances. For these reasons, greater efforts are being made worldwide to reduce VOC emissions. As ozone and precursor materials which are made from VOCs tend to disperse wide area in the atmosphere, VOCs are not a problem which confines itself within the borders of a single country. Rather, they pose a challenge to the world at large. VOCs are set apart from existing pollutants (i. e. SOx) in that they are generate from a different types of sources which are scattered far and wide. VOCs therefore cannot be easily managed. In urban areas, major sources of VOCs are automobiles and solvents. In industrial complexes, however, industrial processes are mainly responsible for the emission of VOCs. This study shows that there has been no apparent change in the level of VOC-generated ozone in all regions of Korea except Seoul, where the maximum acceptable levels of emissions were exceeded on more than three occasions during a unit period. Excessive ozone emissions were detected throughout Seoul metropolitan area, including newly established satellite cities, and industrial areas. The result of this study can be used for determining which areas should be put under special regulation. According to an emission estimation survey, vehicles about 39% and surface coating about 40% topped the list of the nation's VOC emission sources in 1994. As is the case in the United states and Europe, the operation of vehicles and the use of solvent for surface coating are mainly responsible for VOC emission in Korea. And by the year 2000 the total volume of VOC emissions, if left unchecked, will increase about 42% from 1994 levels. This underscore the necessity for establishing measures to reduce the emission for each type of emission sources. When a priority order is set in effect for the reduction of VOC emission, two factors--workplace safety and reduction of ozone pollution in the air-- should be considered. In cases VOCs only account for a small portion of the total pollutant emission in a workplace but pose a serious hazard, the emission source should be given a priority. No doubt, major VOC emission sources should be under intensive control to reduce ozone pollution in the air. For example, priority should be given to automobile and surface coating industries to reduce ozone pollution. Petroleum facilities, dry cleaning and graphic arts facilities, etc. emit relatively small volume of VOCs, but VOC reduction efforts should still be made in those facilities to ensure workplace safety. Such efforts are highly effective in combating ozone pollution to reduce both VOCs and NOx emitting from vehicles. This paper suggests ways of reducing VOCs from each type of sources. These can be summarized as follows: 1) Vehicles To reduce the VOC emission from vehicles, a comprehensive plan taking into account the manufacture and operation of vehicles, fuel and transportation policies, public relations, and economic incentives should be established. Improvement of auto emission inspections and management has turned out to be the most effective in reducing the emission of HC(Hydrocarbon). The decrease in fuel vapor pressure is also related to vapor emission from vehicles. It is therefore necessary to review the vapor pressure of gasoline, which is provided for by the Petroleum Business Act. 2) Surface coating VOC emission from the surface coating industry is no longer a problem which affects only local areas. It is becoming a global problem. In line with the worldwide efforts to regulated VOC emission from surface coating industries, the government should redouble its efforts and encourage the development of related technologies. The best way to reduce the VOC emission in the surface coating industry is to use paint with lower contents of solvents, water borne paints, and pulverized paint, which emit less VOCs. It is therefore inevitable that the coating industry will develop new technology, and the government should establish economic and institutional mechanisms to encourage the technology development. To minimize VOC emission from the surface coating process, facilities should be installed to prevent the emission by, for example, collecting solvents, etc. The use of organic solvent should be restricted as much as possible, and the work process should be improved so as to minimize the use of paints. 3) Petroleum-related facilities □ petroleum loading and Storage facilities In order to reduce VOC emission from petroleum-loading facilities, the bottom loading system should be adopted and vapor collection system to collect emissive vapor during the loading process should be installed. The conversion to the safely-designed, bottom loading system is the order of the day. However, there are great difficulties in making the switch from the existing top loading system to the bottom loading one due to technological and administrative problems that might arise from the modification of loading facilities and tanktrucks. The eventual goal must be the conversion of all existing systems to bottom loading systems, but for the time being, any improvement to the existing system would be a positive step. The bottom loading system should be introduced when loading facilities are newly established. The existing top loading system should be converted to the bottom loading system when it is time to replace the loading arm and tanktrucks with new ones. The type of a tanktruck used should be approved by the Minister of Construction and Transportation. Meanwhile, petroleum-storage facilities also need to be converted so as to minimize the VOC emission. Specifically, the petroleum storage tank should be a double seal floating roof type or a closed type. □ petroleum refinery facilities At petroleum refineries the sources of VOC emissions can not be easily located, but they are undoubtedly scattered, it is important that easy separate unit of the refineries be properly checked and managed. However, only the United States presently conducts proper safety checks and management. This requires lots of experience and know-how, and many problems are still being discussed. Moreover, sufficient study and review should be conducted before the safety check and management system can be introduced to local refineries. Petroleum companies should be encouraged to independently and voluntarily regulate VOC emission at their refineries within the framework of Environmentally-friendly Corporate Management. □ Gas stations Efforts to reduce VOC emission from gas station should be carried out through two stages. During Stage Ⅰ, VOCs that emitted in the process of discharging petroleum from a tanktruck to underground storage tanks are to be regulated. The vapor return line should be set up so that the vapor generated during the fill-up of underground tanks can return to the tanktruck. As StageⅠ process is linked to petroleum loading facilities, the vapor return line should be installed when a gas station newly established. As for the existing stations, it would be good to establish the vapor return line when an old storage tanks are replaced. Regulations on VOC emissions should be formulated taking into the rise in gasoline sales. StageⅡ is the most controversial part of the worldwide efforts to regulate VOC emission. As the VOC emission, as covered by StageⅡ, are only a small portion of the total VOC emission, the StageⅡ regulation will not contribute much to overall emission reduction in emission. Despite these relatively small effects, however, StageⅡ requires enormous investment. A recent report stated that the easy-to set OVRC(On to and Vapor Recovery Canister) turned out to be as effective as the StageⅡ effort in the reduction of VOC emissions. In a similar development, the provision that OVRC should be installed at gasoline-powered vehicles has been included in the US federal law. A comparative study on the OVRC and Stage Ⅱ efforts is now being conducted from various perspectives by researchers of the United States, Europe, and Japan. At this juncture, it would be premature to introduce Stage Ⅱ to the local gas stations. It can minimize social and economic risks if the decision on when and how to introduce StageⅡ is made after due consideration of situation in advanced countries. 4) Dry cleaning and graphic arts Although dry cleaning and graphic arts facilities are responsible for a small portion of the total VOC emission, it is important to regulate them for safety in the workplace. The ventilation facilities of dry cleaner using petroleum solvents should be equipped with adsorbers and other devices to minimize VOC emission. In graphic art, heating, catalytic combustion, and carbon adsorption technologies should be applied. Graphic arts facilities should also be checked to ensure that they are not emitting VOCs in amounts which are in excess of the standard ratio against the total volume of VOC solvent and water used during the average unit time of graphic arts. The "regulation on volatile organic compounds" was added to the country's revised Air Quality preservation Act, promulgated in December 1995. With the provision included in the Act, the legal basis for regulation of VOC emissions has been provided. The regulation is very timely and shows the government's determination to deal with pollution problems. Sufficient study and review are to be conducted before the action plan can be established. It is necessary to analyze regulations of advanced countries, review the background of their policies, and identify causes of failure, if any. With these efforts, the country should minimize trials and errors. For successful implementation of the policy for reduction of VOC emissions, various factors should be considered---VOC emissions from each emission sources, which reportedly can be calculated within a resonable margin of error, based on the nation's air pollution, emission control technology, VOC reduction methods, expected effects and problems, administrative and managerial difficulty, etc. Priorities should be aligned toward the goal of effective regulation of VOC emissions. The management of emitting facilities should also be performed in a consistent and systematic way. In conclusion, industries should realize that the reduction of VOC emissions would translate into reductions in the presence of offensive odor and harmful substances in the workplace, thus protecting the health of workers and keeping the working environment safe and agreeable. With this in mind, industry should rigorously manage and control the VOC emissions from their workplace. Environmentally-friendly management would be highly instrumental in the reduction of VOC emissions. For its part, the government should work out measures to reduce VOC emission. In so doing, the government should keep it in mind that the priority order is to be set according to the goal of VOC emission control. In the ozone pollution in the air, the NOx emission reduction should be handled together with VOC reduction measures for optimum effects. Further study needs to be conducted to determine which of the two pollutant should be controlled for more effective reduction of ozone. Moreover, the emission inventory should be systematically compiled in order to correctly ascertain the emission situation at each VOC emission source. -
dc.identifier.citationtitle 수탁연구 -
dc.contributor.authoralternativename Han -
dc.contributor.authoralternativename Wha-Jin -
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