물 재이용을 통한 도시하천 물순환개선 정책방안

Title
물 재이용을 통한 도시하천 물순환개선 정책방안
Authors
안종호
Co-Author
이진희; 지용근; 김진희
Issue Date
2011-12-31
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2011-12
Page
108p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19799
Language
한국어
Abstract
도시하천은 1960년대 이후 산업화, 도시화가 급속히 진전되면서 홍수방지 차원에서 정비되어 왔고 산업화 팽창시기에는 도시의 과밀화 문제를 해소하는 수단으로 도로와 주차장, 건물 등으로 전용하기 위하여 전면 혹은 부분이 복개되어 사라져 버렸다. 이와 같이 도시화에 의한 불투수지역의 확대는 지하수 함양량 감소, 용수 사용량 증가 및 무분별한 지하수 개발 등으로 인한 지하수위 및 하천 수위의 저하, 하수보급률의 증가로 인한 하천유량 감소 등으로 도시하천은 수량부족 및 수질악화 등으로 인한 생물 서식환경 악화와 환경기능을 상실하게 되었다. 최근 생활수준이 향상되고 생태하천 및 친수공간에 대한 관심이 고조되고 있는 가운데 정부는 복개하천 복원, 건천화 방지 등을 위해 도시하천 복원사업을 적극적으로 추진하는 등 환경개선을 위한 많은 노력을 기울여 왔다. 하지만 도시하천 복원사업은 국토해양부의 경우 국가하천정비사업이나 지방하천정비사업으로, 환경부는 생태하천복원사업으로, 행정안전부는 소하천정비사업으로 구분하여 재정지원 및 추진되고 있어 통합적인 하천 및 유역관리로의 접근을 어렵게 할 뿐만 아니라 순환형 도시물관리를 위한 연계성의 한계를 나타내게 하고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 도시하천을 대상으로 건전한 물순환이 회복될 수 있도록 도시하천 복원사업의 추진현황 및 제도를 검토하고, 물 재이용을 통한 하천생태계 복원 및 친수공간 조성을 위한 하천유지유량 확보방안 등을 검토함으로써 물 재이용을 통한 도시하천의 물순환개선을 위한 국가정책 방안을 제시하고자 하였다.


Since the 1960s, urban streams in Korea have been partially and completely covered, and disappeared to relieve the problem of overcrowding and make way for roads, parking lots, and buildings, and the maintenance of urban streams has focused on flood prevention to protect the lives and properties of people. This urbanization has caused expansion of impermeable districts, reductions of groundwater recharge, and water depletion of groundwater and stream etc. Also, many natural habitats of wildlife were destroyed, and streams have lost their environmental function due to the lack of water quantity and deterioration of water quality among other reasons. Recently, governments have made efforts to improve the environmental conditions of urban streams through restoration projects, uncovering urban streams, preventing stream depletion, improving the quality of life, and meeting the upsurge of interest in eco-rivers and waterfront areas. However, urban stream restoration projects face great difficulties and limitation in integrated urban water circulation management practices. In this study, the current status of urban stream restoration projects were practically and institutionally evaluated to ensure the restoration of sound water circulation in urban streams. Moreover, national policy measures for improving urban stream water circulation are suggested through the estimation of security plans which deal with instream flow augmentation for the restoration of river ecosystems and construction of waterfront areas using water reuse. Current conditions of urban streams and their restoration projects were investigated by surveying the urban stream management experts of regions with high population density (1,000-person/㎢). The results showed that the ratio of covered urban streams decreased by 1.4% (from 14% to 12.6%) in the last 5 years through steady river restoration projects promoted by governments. Nonetheless, 36.3% of 369 urban streams surveyed still report stream depletion problems; therefore, more efforts to alleviate the problems caused by distorted water circulation of urban streams are still necessary. In particular, stream depletion problems are concentrated in Seoul, Daegu, Daejeon, Ulsan, Goyang, Namyangju, Changwon, and Masan, and cities with a stream depletion rate higher than 50% are Seoul, Daegu, Daejeon, Goyang, Ansan, Namyangju Changwon, Gunpo, and Hanam. Water depletion in many local urban streams, unlike national rivers, is accelerated due to negligence in stream management, budget shortage, and other reasons. To prevent stream depletion, the use of reclaimed water is suggested as one of the prevention plans, but the water quality of reclaimed water remains inadequate for waterfront environments and fails to meet the people's demand due to lack of systematic and scientific planning. The central government's budget to support urban stream restoration projects is divided among the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs, Ministry of Environment, and Ministry of Public Administration and Security. Local governments that conduct their own projects face limitations in planning and accomplishing projects organically due to separated initiatives and responsibilities of each individual department. Thus, water quantity, quality, and ecosystems are not considered polysynthetically in the planning and promotion process of urban stream restoration projects. Also, economic and environmental aspects are not reflected in the reviews of feasibility and alternatives of water reuse projects. In particular, pumping plans of nearby water resources are mainly promoted for instream flow augmentation, emphasizing investment budget reductions. As seen earlier, a systematic approach which considers the entire watershed to tackle many problems of urban water circulation is more necessary rather than an individual approach to the problems. In addition, it is necessary for each water-related ministry to adopt integrated watershed management concepts which include systematic and efficient security approaches of sound water circulation. Integrated watershed management planning is a useful approach when various stakeholders exist, as is the case in the security plan for sound urban water circulation. In this study, water reuse alternatives to improve water circulation via sustainable integrated watershed management plan are mainly reviewed through the case study of Anyang-cheon. First, risk ranking is suggested through the quantitative identification of each basin's step-by-step problems, and target instream flow and target water quality are set for sustainable integrated watershed management plans, reflecting engineering and economic factors. Alternatives to achieve the goals are proposed, and effects are analyzed. Moreover, evaluation indices of proposed alternatives are calculated; then benefit-cost analysis is conducted; and the priorities are chosen. The direction of future urban water management should: 1) distribute treated sewage water which are concentrated in the downstream to distorted water circulation areas, 2) minimize intakes of surface water-oriented and water movement of river diversion, 3) link eco-friendly water reuse with rainfall, 4) establish sound system of water circulation. As a result, it is important for the government to promote both systems and policies for water circulation system and strict water quality management policy. In particular, the use of reclaimed water for securing urban instream flow could anticipate the security of sound water circulation, water quality improvement through the reduction of point-source pollutant load, and vitalization of water industry with water reuse technologies. In addition, it could anticipate the creation of new value through water reuse service and be the engine of sustainable green growth for the water industry. When available amounts of reused sewage are estimated through actual available nationwide sewage discharges of each watershed and instream flow of stream, annual instream flow supply of 780 million ㎥ is expected; 4.8% reduction in the pollution load of public sewer treatment facilities is expected; and creation of additional business worth 750-billion-won for the domestic water industry market is expected.

Table Of Contents

제1장 서 론
1. 연구 배경 및 목적
2. 연구 구성 및 내용

제2장 도시하천 현황
1. 도시하천 현황
2. 도시하천 복개 현황
3. 도시하천 건천화 현황
4. 도시하천 관리를 위한 법·제도 현황

제3장 도시하천 물순환개선 사업과 유지유량 확보
1. 도시하천 물순환개선 사업 현황
가. 환경부 추진 사업
나. 국토해양부 추진 사업
다. 도시하천 물순환개선 사업의 분석
2. 도시하천 유지유량 확보 방안
가. 기존수원의 활용
나. 지하철 유출지하수 이용
다. 하수처리수 재이용
라. 빗물 저류시설 활용

제4장 도시하천 물순환개선 계획수립 방향 및 절차
1. 도시하천 물순환 건전화 개념 및 방향
2. 지속가능한 유역통합관리의 필요성 및 접근방법
3. 도시유역 물순환 해석시스템 구축
4. 물 재이용을 통한 물순환개선 계획 사례 : 안양천
가. 대상유역의 현황
나. 물재이용 계획 결과

제5장 물 재이용을 통한 도시 물순환개선과 물산업 활성화
1. 지속가능한 미래도시 물순환 시스템 구축
2. 물 재이용을 통한 물산업 활성화
3. 하수처리수 재이용 가능량 및 기대효과

제6장 도시하천 물순환개선을 위한 물 재이용 정책제언
1. 도시 물순환개선을 위한 물 재이용 활성화 제도 정비
가. 도시하천 유지용수 또는 환경용수 확보를 위한 물재이용 우선 적용
나. 수질악화금지원칙 적용 및 재이용수 수질관리 기준 설정
2. 도시하천 복원사업의 체계적 추진 및 재정지원
3. 하수 재이용수의 유지용수 활용에 대한 전략적 사업추진
4. 물관련 자료 구축 및 물순환/물수지 분석 시스템 구축

제7장 결 론

참고 문헌

Abstract

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