폐금속자원 희유금속 자원순환 활성화를 위한 기술적?제도적 지원방안

Title
폐금속자원 희유금속 자원순환 활성화를 위한 기술적?제도적 지원방안
Authors
이희선
Co-Author
이민주; 주현수; 김광임
Issue Date
2011-12-31
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2011-17
Page
149p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19804
Language
한국어
Abstract
Rare metals, known as 'vitamins of industries', increase the quality and effectiveness of various products, even in small quantities. In particular, the use of rare metals are essential in IT and high tech industries, and they are indispensible ingredients for today's key industries and future growth industries. Therefore, a stable procurement of rare metals is already incredibly important to the survival of Korean industries and the securement of Korea's economic competitiveness. Nonetheless, the insecurities concerning the stable procurement of rare metals have gradually risen due to the increased propensity of rare metal production countries to engage in trade wars, as well as the scarcity and high production concentration of rare metals in certain countries. It is therefore imperative for Korea to increase its resources competitiveness through collection and recycling of its waste metal resources (both basic and rare) because procurement limitations on metal resources could threaten Korea's economic competitiveness. The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review and analyze the policy trends regarding domestic and foreign technologies that generate, collect/treat, and recover waste rare metal resources. Also it is to select rare metals for proper study among total rare metals and then to observe material flows and their impact on the environment. In addition, this study aims to diagnose problems that relate to recycling rare metals and provide policy solutions by identifying the present status of Korean rare metal recycling businesses based on its finding. In chapter 2, the importance of rare metals is discussed using literatures and past studies both at home and abroad. The demand for rare metals are predicted to increase drastically with the growth of high tech industries such as IT, BT, and GT because rare metals are considered essential for many industries. Nonetheless, the stable procurement of rare metals remain questionable for Korean industries due to unequal access and production of rare metals to a few countries. Also, it is difficult because rare metal production countries have strengthened their nature preservation laws and embraced the trend of using their metal resources as tools in trade wars. In chapter 3, the trends of recycling industry of waste metal resources sector was discussed. In Korea, management policies concerning the recycling of waste metal resources remain inadequate due to the lack of initiative and support by the Korean government. Furthermore, Korea's recycling rate of non-ferrous and rare metals is extremely low at below 15 percent, and its level on rare metal-related technologies has fallen below 20 percent when compared to other developed countries. Therefore, technological improvement through governmental support on technological development should be achieved. On the contrary, as an international leader in the waste metal resources industry, Japan has placed great focus on the development of waste metal resources recycling. Also, China has employed trade restrictions and stoppage on rare earth resources to increase its competitiveness as a resources-rich country despite its abundant supply of rare metals. In chapter 4, precedent studies on rare metals were analyzed through various related research institutions, national policies, and plans, and the current state of recycling industries were analyzed, from which five rare metals as research object were selected. In addition, the material flows of each rare metal were analyzed, and environmental risks and impacts were observed, which arise as a result of collecting rare metals to recycle waste metal resources. In chapter 5, as the conclusion chapter, problems relating to recycling waste metal resources were observed, and policy solutions were suggested. For this, various companies of large and/or medium size were visited and analyzed. The problems identified in recycling waste metal resources are as follows: the lack of pretreatment technologies and systems to screen and classify waste metal resources; leakage of personal information and high price estimates for waste products from waste generators; difficulty in securing materials due to increases in bidding prices caused by a yearly bidding and an overly competitive bidding system; lack of national policies relating to waste resources on waste management laws and industrial codes of the National Statistical Office; industrial structure focused on large corporations. Suggested solutions for the problems enumerated above are as follows: improvement of the bidding system; pretreatment supporting policies such as development of appropriate screening and classification systems, fosterage of industries that specialize in crushing and grinding metals, establishment of a pretreatment database, and grant of first rights to purchase; application of quota tariffs on waste resources; strengthening the laws regarding overseas transfer of waste resources to secure the supply of waste materials; the need for coexistence between large and medium-sized industries by establishing a hierarchical structure for participation of stake and specialization; construction of specialized complexes between the parties; and strengthening national policies by easing legal regulations on manufacturers and advocating positive awareness of recycling.


희유금속은 소량만으로도 제품의 성능 및 품질을 향상시킬 수 있어 다양한 소재와 제품에 사용되고 있으며, 특히 최근 IT산업과 첨단산업에 필수적으로 사용되는 등 국가 주력산업 및 향후 성장동력산업에 있어 필수소재로서, 희유금속의 안정적 확보는 기업의 생존문제에 이어 국가 차원의 경쟁력 확보에서 매우 중요하다. 이처럼 희유금속의 소비가 급증하는 반면, 금속의 희소성과 특정 국가의 생산 집중도가 높아 자원보유국의 자원 무기화 경향으로 인해 자원에 대한 공급 불안정성은 점차 증가하고 있다. 금속자원의 공급 불안정은 우리나라 산업경쟁력에도 위협요인으로 작용할 수 있기 때문에 자원확보 및 산업 경쟁력 강화를 위해 폐금속자원으로부터 금, 은, 팔라듐 같은 귀금속뿐만 아니라 인듐, 니켈, 코발트 같은 희유금속을 회수하여 전략금속을 자원순환하는 것은 필수적이다. 따라서 본 연구는 폐금속자원 희유금속의 발생 및 수거/처리 및 회수하는 국내외 기술을 종합적으로 검토하고 이와 관련된 각국의 정책동향을 분석하며, 희유금속 중 중요하다고 판단되는 중점연구대상 금속을 선정하여 물질흐름 및 환경에 미치는 영향 등을 분석하고자 한다. 이를 바탕으로 국내 희유금속의 재활용업체 현황을 파악하여 희유금속의 재활용을 통한 자원순환을 저해하는 문제점을 파악하고 이를 해결할 수 있는 방안을 마련하고자 하는 데 그 목적이 있다.

Table Of Contents

제1장 · 서 론
1. 연구의 배경 및 목적
2. 연구의 내용 및 방법

제2장 · 희유금속의 중요성
1. 희유금속의 정의 및 종류
2. 희유금속의 사용증가 추이
3. 희유금속의 국제동향

제3장 · 국내·외 폐금속자원 산업 동향
1. 국내
가. 폐금속자원 산업
나. 폐희유금속 재활용 업황
다. 폐희유금속 재활용 기술 동향 및 수준
2. 국외
가. 폐희유금속 현황
나. 폐금속자원 재활용 관련 법 및 제도
다. 희유금속 관련 정책
라. 폐금속자원 재활용 업체 동향
마. 폐희유금속 재활용 기술 동향

제4장 · 대상 희유금속 선정 및 물질흐름 분석
1. 대상 희유금속 선정 방법
가. 선행연구의 분석에 따른 대상 희유금속 선정
나. 정부정책의 분석에 따른 대상 희유금속 선정
다. 재활용산업의 분석에 따른 대상 희유금속 선정
2. 연구대상 희유금속 선정
3. 연구대상 희유금속의 물질흐름 분석
가. 대상 희유금속의 특성
나. 연구대상 금속의 물질 흐름 분석
4. 폐희유금속 회수 후 환경성
가. 폐희유금속으로부터 재활용공정
나. 잔사에 함유될 수 있는 유해금속 성분의 성질
다. 환경적·건강적 고려사항

제5장 · 폐희유금속 재활용 문제점 및 개선방안
1. 폐희유금속 재활용 업체 현황
가. 방문 업체 선정 기준
나. 대상 업체 방문
2. 폐희유금속 재활용 문제점
가. 선별·분류를 위한 전처리 기술 및 시스템의 부족
나. 물량확보의 어려움
다. 대기업 중심으로 편재된 산업구조
라. 재활용에 대한 국내제도의 미비
3. 폐희유금속 재활용 활성화를 위한 개선방안
가. 전처리를 위한 지원방안
나. 물량확보를 위한 제도 개선 및 법적 규제 완화
다. 대기업과 중소기업간의 상생관계 정립 필요
라. 국내 재활용제도의 강화

제6장 · 결 론

참고 문헌

부록: 할당관세제도 적용 품목

Abstract

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