에티오피아 수자원개발(I)

Title
에티오피아 수자원개발(I)
Authors
이윤
Co-Author
Farhed Shah [외]
Issue Date
2011-12-31
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
사업보고서 : 2011-05-02
Page
168 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19963
Language
영어
Abstract
The Korean government and many international organizations are willing to support the increasing demand of African water sector. However, not much information is available to the public. This research is focused on the Ethiopian water resources due to the importance of its feature. Since the Nile River is one of the most valuable water resources of many riparian countries, research demand and needs are hard to emphasis. Ethiopia is located in the horn of African, and it is called the 'Water Tower.' Due to its unique feature, there are many externailites to consider in managing its water resources. One important characteristic is the sedimentation from the Highland. Since the sedimentation reduces the life of downstream reservoirs, sediment control issues are critical in Ethiopia. Among the many sediment control techniques, we considered two reservoir-level sediment control schemes: dredging and hydrosuction. For the simplification of the study, two upstream soil erosion schemes are considered: soil conservation efforts and practices. Thus, our mathematical model allows integrated watershed management. However, due to the lack of information, we only considered upstream and reservoir in the empirical model . The key feature of this study is that the computable hydro-economics model called S-RESCON was developed. Using this, several policy implications are analyzed for the Koka Reservoir basin case study. First, immediate dredging should be applied to achieve sustainable life in the reservoir and reach the socially optimum. Second, the maximum amount of dredging event is believed to be less than 2 Mm3 per year. Third, 15 tons per ha of soil conservation practice should be applied in upstream for first 11 years, and 9 tons per ha are needed for another 45 years. Last but not least, socially optimum net benefits of its watershed are calculated as approximately $5.7 billion for the rest of designed dam life. Suffice to say that implementing upstream soil conservation practice and reservoir-level dredging will create jobs for the Ethiopian economy. Also, this method can be expanded to investigate the entire watershed in Ethiopia. In doing so, water supply system reinforcement and renewal can improve the water shortage in Ethiopia and increase the social welfare. Moreover, this model can be applied to other nations with severe sedimentation problems in their watershed that has some transboundary issues with neighboring countries.

Table Of Contents

I. Introduction
1. Research Background
2. Research Objectives and Scope

Ⅱ.Water Resource Status Quo
1. The Current Status of Water Resources in Africa
2. Water Resources and Use in Ethiopia
2.1 Basins in Ethiopia
2.2 Lakes and Reservoirs in Ethiopia

III. Ethiopian Water Policy, Strategy and Program
1. The Historical Background and Agencies in Water Resource Management
2. The Ministry of Water and Energy
3. Water Policy Implementation
3.1 Introduction
2.2 Water Supply and Sanitation Policy
2.3 Water Supply and Sanitation Related Policy
4. Water Resource Improvement and Sanitation Strategy
5. Water Resource Improvement and Sanitation Program
6. Stakeholders of Water Resource Policies and Programs

IV. Water Related Issues
1. Introduction
2. Constraints on Water Resource Development in Ethiopia
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The Effect of Natural Disaster
2.3 Transboundary Conflicts with Contiguous Countries
2.4 Irrigation in Agricultural Production, Economy, and Society
2.5 Sedimentation
2.6 Status of Drainage Systems in Ethiopia
2.7 Hydropower and Dams in Ethiopia
3. Recommendations for Water Resources Management

V. Case Study
1. Case Study Background
1.1 Concept of IWM and Reservoir
1.2 Literature Review
2. Model Framework
2.1 Net Benefits for Upstream Farmers
2.2 Water Pollution Concentration
2.3 Reservoir Level Net Benefits
2.4 Downstream Level Net Benefits
2.5 Socially Optimal Solution
3. Data and Empirical Specification
3.1 Data Background
3.2 Mathematical Optimization Modelling Approach
3.3 Empirical Results

VI. Conclusion

References

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