육상화물운송수단의 미세먼지 및 온실가스 저감 방안 연구

Title
육상화물운송수단의 미세먼지 및 온실가스 저감 방안 연구
Authors
한진석
Co-Author
이승민; 정예민; 박민철; 김수현
Issue Date
2019-10-31
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2019-06
Page
216 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/22828
Language
한국어
Keywords
화물차, 철도, 경유차, 초미세먼지, 온실가스, Truck, Railroad, Diesel Vehicle, Ultrafine Particulate Matter, Green House Gas
Abstract
Ⅰ. 연구의 배경 및 목적 ? 전 세계적으로 수송부문의 미세먼지(PM: Particular Matter) 및 온실가스(GHG: Greenhouse Gas) 저감을 위하여 경유차 관리에 대한 필요성 강조 ㅇ 최근 연구에 따르면 전 세계 블랙카본 배출량의 20%는 수송부문에서 발생하며 수송부문에서는 90% 이상이 경유차에서 발생하는 것으로 추정 ㅇ 국제암연구소(IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer)에서 경유차 배출가스를 인체발암물질(Class 1)로 규정함에 따라 신규 및 운행 경유차 관리에 대한 사회적 관심 증가 ㅇ 수송부문에서 발생하는 미세먼지 배출량은 1990년 이래 지속적으로 증가하는 추세이며, 이는 물류 활성화, 경유 승용차 시장 확대 등에 따른 경유 소비량 증가에 기인 ㅇ 수송부문의 온실가스 배출량도 증가하는 추세이며, 이는 아직까지 타 부문 대비 화석연료 의존도가 높기 때문임 ? 국내의 경우 미세먼지 농도는 2013년부터, 온실가스 배출량은 2010년부터 정체되는 추세여서 미세먼지와 온실가스 모두 지속적인 저감 노력 필요 ㅇ 수송부문의 경우 초미세먼지 배출 비중은 총 배출량 대비 약 9%로 높지 않으나 인구밀도가 높은 수도권에서는 배출 비중이 약 18%로 높아지고, 온실가스 배출 비중 역시 총 배출량 대비 약 14% 차지 ㅇ 수송부문 중 초미세먼지와 질소산화물, 온실가스 모두 경유 화물차의 배출 비중이 크기 때문에 육상화물운송수단의 오염물질 저감 방안 강화 필요 ? 본 연구에서는 육상화물운송수단의 미세먼지 저감 방안으로 현행 화물차의 배출가스 저감 정책의 실효성 제고 방안을, 온실가스 저감 방안으로 화물차의 통행량을 줄이기 위하여 현행 도로화물 물동량을 철도화물로 전환하기 위한 방안을 중심으로 검토


Ⅰ. Background and Aims of Research ? Emphasis on the need to control the emissions from diesel vehicles to reduce Particulate Matter (PM) and Green House Gases (GHG) from global transportation ㅇ Domestically, since 2013, the trend of reducing the concentration of PM has weakened, and, since 2010, the trend of reducing the emissions of GHG has weakened, thus, more effort is needed to reduce both PM and GHG emissions. ㅇ In this study, as a means of reducing PM emissions from ground freight transportation, we reviewed the effectiveness improvement plan of the current freight vehicle emission reduction policy, and to reduce GHG emissions, we reviewed the plan to convert a certain volume of goods transported by trucks to transportation by railroads. Ⅱ. Emission and Transportation Volume of Ground Freight 1. Emission of air pollutants and GHG ? As of 2016, the emissions of ultrafine PM pollutants during the transportation of goods by trucks on the nations’ roadways and by trains on the nation’s railways were 9.7% and 14.3%, respectively, accounting for about 24% of the total PM emissions. ? As of 2016, GHG emissions from the energy sector, including the transportation sector, increased by 0.4% from the previous year, and the transportation sector accounted for 16.4% of the total emissions by the energy sector. 2. Volume of freight transportation and traffic ? As of 2015, the total volume of domestic freight transportation was about 1.92 billion tons, an increase of 5.2% from the previous year, and the types of transportation that moved the most cargo both per vehicle and by total volume were in the order of road freight, coastal freight, railroad freight, and air freight. ? As of 2015, the average daily traffic of freight trucks was 4.1 million trips, and this increased by 4.3% from the previous year. By the ton class of the truck, small trucks carried 81.1% of the freight, while medium trucks and large trucks carried 10.7% and 8.2%, respectively. Ⅲ. Environmental Policy Trend of Ground Freight Transportation 1. Implication ? Major domestic/foreign policy trend analysis to reduce pollution from ground freight transportation. ㅇ Comparing the policy and regulation establishment cases regarding emission standards, the domestic management level is relatively high. ㅇ An approach regarding the management of supply/demand can be considered. Certain solutions can be considered, especially solutions such as the oil subsidy adjustment that supports a diesel price system for freight trucks or the diversification of logistics, such as switching to railroad freight. ㅇ Domestically, efforts have been made to supply zero-emission transportation with purchase subsidies for electrical freight vehicles and to create roadmaps for hydrogen cell vehicles. However, concerning trucks, a valid vehicle with economic feasibility and profitability has yet to be developed. ㅇ In order to reduce the pollutants in older vehicles, it is necessary to strengthen the emission control of diesel trucks. ㅇ In order to induce low-pollution measures for trucks, it is necessary to consider the introduction of pollutant vehicle operation restriction policies around heavy traffic areas, which currently exists and are enforced in the Seoul metropolitan area. ? Suggested solutions from this study to reduce pollutants from the transportation of ground freight are as follows: ㅇ 1) Phased adjustment of diesel subsidies for freight trucks, 2) Invigorating the usage of and conversion to railroad freight, 3) Encouraging the use of alternative fuels for trucks, 4) More strict emission control of vehicles that are currently are being used, 5) Expansion of the restrictions on the operation of vehicles that pollute the atmosphere. Ⅳ. Solutions to Reduce Pollution from Ground Freight Transportation 1. Phased adjustment of freight truck subsidies ? This study suggests the phased adjustment of freight truck fuel subsidies to promote the transition away from diesel fuel, which is used by most of the current freight trucks, to less-polluting, alternative fuels while maintaining the subsidy policy for the short term. ㅇ Under the fuel subsidy policy, there is a need to reduce the relative gaps between the subsidy levels for different fuels in order to promote the transition from diesel to alternative fuels. ㅇ Basically, the subsidy for diesel fuel will end after 5 years, and the subsidy for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) will be maintained for 10 years, depending on the popularity level of zero-emission vehicles, such as electric or hydrogen cell vehicles. ㅇ Also, once the market share of zero-emission vehicles reaches a high level (80% or higher), the fuel subsidy policy will not be a meaningful tool to promote the transition to alternative fuels. Therefore, discontinuing the policy can be considered. ㅇ If the transition to alternative fuel vehicles is difficult due to short-term ownership, the reduced or discontinued policy will have a negative impact on the owners. Therefore, temporary financial support also should also be considered. 2. Encouraging the usage of and transition to railroad freight. ? In order to promote the transition to railroad freight, the current policy concerning the railroad conversion subsidy should be improved ㅇ Considering the transportation market environment that does not allow easy transition to railroad freight due to poor railroad transporting conditions and the purpose of the “Sustainable Transportation Logistics Development Act”, the contractors should be appreciated during the contract volume discussion for their contributions to the reduction of pollution by continuous operation of railroad transportation in spite of the difficulties in doing so. ㅇ The current railroad transition subsidy level is determined as the lower quote between the application amount and the upper limit amount. However, to more actively reflect the environmental value of railroad freight and to promote the transition, the upper limit amount must be determined reasonably. ? In order to encourage railroad freight, the enhancement of the logistics capabilities at railroad hub stations is required, which involves effective field extensions and improvements to lines. 3. Encouraging alternative fuels for trucks ? The proliferation of zero-emission vehicles in the transportation sector is the current trend, but the current development and distribution of zero-emission vehicles are focused on passenger vehicles, so making zero-emission commercial vehicles popular, such as freight trucks, is expected to take some time. ㅇ Ultimately, the goal is to popularize the zero-emission vehicles in both passenger and commercial vehicles. But until the point when the zero-emission vehicle is generalized enough to be able to purchase without a subsidy, focus on supplying alternative fuel vehicles is needed regarding the reduction of pollutants from commercial vehicles ㅇ Since the market share of LPG and LNG trucks is low in the freight truck sector, stable demand/supply policies must be guaranteed in order to promote the manufacturing of alternative fuel vehicles and to create a stable demand for them. ㅇ The “excellent logistics company certification system” and the “excellent green logistics practice company designation system”, which are supported by the current “Basic Logistics Policy Act”, can be used to create a market for trucks that use alternative fuels. ㅇ In order to achieve an increased ownership of alternative fuel or zero- emission vehicles by the logistics companies, the benefit of the ownership should be enhanced in addition to the improvement of the current system. 4. More strict emission control of vehicles that are currently operating ? Despite the fact that the allowable emission level of manufactured vehicles is high, considering that the inspection period ranges from 1 to 4 years and the average duration of the ownership of a vehicle is about 10 years, the proper management of emission control during the ownership of the vehicle is very important. ㅇ Older diesel vehicles that emit a large amount of the PM and NOX require proper management. ㅇ However, even with the emission reduction devices installed, many vehicles fail to pass the inspection. Therefore, there must be stricter follow-up management of those cases to control the pollution from the vehicles that are currently operating. ㅇ Proper cleaning is also required to maintain the type 1 emission reduction devices. So the requirement to clean the emission reduction devices should be monitored. 5. Expansion of the policy to restrict the operation of polluting vehicles ? The current plan is to implement the “Special Act on the Improvement of Air Quality in the Metropolitan Area” on April 3, 2020. The conventional atmosphere management zones from Seoul metropolitan area and a new, non-Seoul metropolitan area allow the restriction of diesel vehicles by Article 29 of the “Special Act on the Improvement of Air Quality in Metropolitan Area”. ㅇ When implementing the restriction in Seoul and other atmosphere management zones, the areas with high traffic of the polluting vehicles should be considered. ㅇ In particular, to reduce the pollution of the aging trucks, there is a need to manage the transition to alternative fuel, low pollution treatment, and the operation restriction of freight trucks in high traffic areas. For example, there are the logistics terminals, such as an inland logistics base, which is based on the “Act on the Development and Management of Logistics Facilities” by the Department of Transportation, and a port hinterland complex based on the Port Act of the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries. - In the case of the port hinterland complex, according to the “Special Act on the Improvement of Air Quality in Port Area”, which was enacted on April 2, 2019, the regulations, such as the promotion to install more environmentally-friendly, cargo-handling equipment and restricting the entrance of aging freight trucks to the port, will be enforced as of January 2020. - Logistics terminals do not have systems developed for the management of aging trucks, so this must be considered. The solution should be maintaining continuity with the aging truck control solutions for the port hinterland complex through the “Special Act on the Improvement of Air Quality in Port Area” and also by simultaneously increasing the synergy of reducing pollutants from freight trucks. Ⅴ. Conclusion and Suggestions 1. Conclusion ? In the transportation sector, the proliferation of zero-emission vehicles is the current trend. In the passenger vehicle market, the popularization of zero-emission cars is being pursued, and in the commercial vehicle market, the development of zero-emission trucks is actively in progress. ㅇ As the market share of zero-emission vehicles increases, the impact of the transportation sector on air pollution and climate change is expected to be diminished. ㅇ Only the market share of zero-emission vehicles is not very high, and especially the electric trucks of the mid-to-large tonne class are expected to take only 1%∼3% of the global market share by 2030. ㅇ Therefore, while targeting the zero-emission vehicle for freight trucks in the transportation sector, the promotion of the fuel conversion to the less polluting fuels and stricter pollution control of diesel fuel vehicles are needed. ? This study of the reduction of pollutants is focused on diesel freight trucks, which produce more pollutants, such as PM and GHG, among domestic ground freight transportation. ㅇ As the standard direction for the reduction of pollutants, in order to reduce the pollutants from freight trucks, alternative fuel vehicles should be promoted for new vehicles, more strict emission controls should be enforced, and switching to other types of transportation modes should be encouraged as much as possible to reduce the traffic of freight trucks. - The phased adjustment of the fuel subsidy for freight trucks and the active invigoration of the usage of alternative fuels are the solutions to promote the fuel conversion for freight trucks. More strict emission control and the expansion of the restrictions on the operation of polluting vehicles could be considered as measures to enhance the control of pollutants from freight vehicles. - Usage of and transition to railroad transportation can also be considered as a way to reduce the volume of transportation. ㅇ It is consider that all of the above solutions contribute to the reduction of both PM and GHG, so no other individual reduction suggestions were considered. - However, in the case of switching to or the use of railroad transportation, this mode of transportation has an advantage over truck transportation with respect to the amount of GHG emissions per unit volume transported, and, since the railroad construction projects have been approved as projects outside of the Emission Trading system, it is considered to have a greater impact on reducing GHG than reducing PM. 2. Suggestions ? The role of the government is important in effectively driving reduction of pollutants for ground freight transportation. The government should express its clear intension to drive the related policy, and it should provide consistent policy signals to the leaders of the ground freight transportation business. ㅇ In the short term, the related system should be improved to promote the smooth transition of fuel from diesel to alternative fuels and the smooth transition of a large amount of ground freight transportation to other transportation methods. ㅇ In the medium to long term, efforts should be made to conduct research and development activities related to the technology to prepare for the time when the transportation of ground freight will be required to have zero emissions. ? Domestically, efforts should be made to lower the market share of diesel vehicles, which expose people to dangerous carcinogens, in order to reduce the social damage of pollutants generated from the entire transportation sector, especially the diesel trucks that have the largest proportion of such pollutants among ground transportation vehicles.

Table Of Contents

요 약

제1장 서론
1. 연구의 필요성 및 목적
2. 연구의 범위 및 방법
3. 선행연구와의 차별성

제2장 육상화물운송수단 배출 및 통행 특성
1. 대기오염물질 및 온실가스 배출량
2. 화물 물동량 및 통행량

제3장 육상화물운송수단 환경정책 동향
1. 국내 동향
2. 국외 동향
3. 시사점

제4장 육상화물운송수단 오염물질 저감 방안 관련 분석
1. 화물차 오염물질에 따른 환경피해비용 추정
2. 도로화물의 철도화물 전환에 따른 사회적 편익 추정
3. 경유 화물차 대체연료 보급 타당성 분석
4. 자동차 종합검사 자료 분석
5. 화물자동차 통행 실태조사 자료 분석


제5장 육상화물운송수단 오염물질 저감 방안
1. 화물차 유가보조금 단계적 조정
2. 철도화물 전환 및 이용 활성화
3. 화물차 대체연료 수단 보급 활성화
4. 운행차 배출가스 관리 강화
5. 공해차량 운행제한 제도 확대

제6장 결론 및 제언
1. 결론
2. 정책 제언

참고문헌

Executive Summary

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