자유무역협정의 환경친화성 제고방안

Title
자유무역협정의 환경친화성 제고방안
Authors
강상인
Co-Author
김재준
Issue Date
2003-12-30
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2003-17
Page
106p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19123
Language
한국어
Abstract
The environmental impact induced by free trade between Korea and Japan Since the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 endorsed the importance of mutual supportiveness between environmental protection and promotion of sustainable development under the open and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system, the environmental impacts of trade liberalization have become a theme of heated debate at global, regional and national level. In understanding overall linkage between trade and environment, we need to recognize that trade is not the major factor which causes the environmental degradation. The relation between trade and environment depends on the specialization structure and the inter-industrial difference in induced environmental impacts from production. It is generally accepted that, without appropriate environmental policy intervention, the economic growth driven by trade liberalization may speed up the environmental degradation. But in the long run, international trade could contribute to the environmental protection by facilitating the worldwide diffusion of environment-friendly technologies and goods. The WTO Annual Report 2003 observed that most WTO members are now party to at least one regional free trade agreement and many to several. And the upward surge in regional trade agreements was most strongly felt in the Asia Pacific region, where countries long in favor of multilateral-only liberalization have whole-heartedly embraced the regional option. Japan, with the entry of its free trade agreement with Singapore in November 2002, became the latest regional trade agreement convert among the WTO members. And Korea, having signed a free trade agreement with Chile, follows Japan. The free trade agreement between Korea and Chile is under ratification process in Korea. Having concluded the Japan-Singapore free trade agreement, Japan is working to introduce a kind of environmental review process in its free trade agreement policy. Japanese Ministry of Environment constructed a working group with some experts in academia to examine the possibility of introducing the environmental impact assessment for trade liberalization under the free trade agreement. Also, Korea takes a similar approach in its environmental review process on free trade agreement policy. From the trade and environment linkage point of view, a quantitative approach to the environmental impact of free trade agreement provides decision-makers with more helpful policy reference than a qualitative analysis. This study analyzed the air pollution impact in Korea induced by trade liberalization between Korea and Japan. A standard multi-region CGE model based on GTAP data base Ver. 5.0 and Korean air pollution inventories in 1998 was used to give a quantitative feature of trade and environment linkage in Korea. The simulation result shows that the aggregated environmental effect depends on the change of specialization structure between pre and post trade liberalization. The inter-industrial difference of emission coefficients and of disposal cost by pollutant type plays a major role in determining the scale of the aggregated environmental effect. The free trade agreement between Korea and Japan reduces the overall air pollution emission by 0.36% but increases the pollution disposal cost slightly by 0.06%. The rate of disposal cost increase is much smaller than that of the real GDP(0.28%). This type of quantitative analysis can provide useful environmental policy guidelines for pursuing "win-win strategy" in trade and environment linkage.

Table Of Contents

국문요약 I

제 1 장. 자유무역협정(Free Trade Agreement) 1
1. 자유무역협정 개요 1
2. 자유무역협정 동향 5
가. 자유무역협정 발전동향 5
나. 세계경제와 자유무역협정 7
3. 자유무역협정의 평가 10

제 2 장. 자유무역협정과 환경 12
1. 환경과 무역 연계에 관한 통합적 접근 12
2. 자유무역협정과 역내 환경협력 사례: 북미자유무역협정(NAFTA) 14
가. 북미자유무역협정(NAFTA) 개요 14
나. 북미환경협력협정(NAAEC)의 기능 15
다. 북미자유무역협정(NAFTA)의 환경성 평가 경과 20
3. 일본의 자유무역협정과 환경성 평가 21
가. 일본의 자유무역협정 동향 21
나. 자유무역협정의 환경성에 대한 연구 22
4. 우리나라의 자유무역협정 동향 24
가. 한-칠레 FTA 체결 경과 24
나. 한-일 FTA 논의 경과 26
5. 자유무역협정 대응 환경정책 과제 29
가. 자유무역협정의 환경성 평가제도 도입 29
나. 자유무역협정의 환경성 평가지침 31
다. 자유무역협정의 환경성에 대한 정량분석기법 연구 34

제 3 장. 자유무역협정의 환경효과에 대한 정량분석 36
1. 자유무역협정과 환경영향평가 36
가. 자유무역협정이 환경에 미치는 영향 36
나. 자유무역협정의 환경영향평가 절차 37
다. 정량적 환경영향평가 기법 38
2. GTAP-CGE모형 41
가. 국제무역과 연산일반균형 분석 41
나. GTAP-CGE 모형 43
3. 환경오염 유발계수 및 처리비용 추정 50
가. 환경경제통합계정 시범편제의 활용 50
나. 환경오염 배출계수 53
다. 환경오염 처리비용 55

제 4 장. 한-일 FTA 분석사례 57
1. 한국의 대외교역 57
가. 수출입 동향 57
나. 한일 교역현황 60
2. 대외교역 경쟁력 65
가. 불변시장 점유율분석(CMSA: Constant Market Share Analysis) 65
나. 불변시장 점유율분석 결과 67
3. 한-일 FTA의 한국 내 환경파급효과 추정 69
가. 한·중·일 삼국의 FTA별 파급효과 69
나. 한·일 FTA의 환경파급효과 73
4. 분석상의 한계점 및 후속 작업전망 78

제 5 장. 결론 80

참고문헌 83

< 부록 1 > 대기오염물질 톤 당 처리비용 90

< 부록 2 > CGE모형의 방정식체계 91

< 부록 3 > GTAP의 상품분류 및 국가분류 98

Abstract 101

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