골프장 운영에 따른 생태계 영향 분석

Title
골프장 운영에 따른 생태계 영향 분석
Authors
권영한
Issue Date
2003-11-20
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
정책보고서 : 2003-02
Page
vi, 137p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19129
Language
한국어
Abstract
This study, connected to the previous research in 2002, was carried out to prove debates on what is the level of environmental impacts of golf course operation with scientific data. The goals of the study were to investigate repeatedly benthic invertebrates to confirm the results obtained from the previous study, and to provide diminishing measures in construction and operation of a golf course as well as a policy alternative on golf course siting through the investigation of terrestrial ecosystem. Because the study sites of the golf courses were confined to the forests of Gyoung-gi province, the results of the study may not be applied to golf courses in other provinces. However, similar level and tendency of the results on ecological effects of the golf courses that have been constructed in the mountain forests can be expected. Compared to the previous data, more species and individuals of benthic invertebrates were found at three golf courses in the present study except at the site of C2 and Cc. According to the classified groups, the order Diptera which is generally tolerant to organic water environment showed high individual biomass. Although there were some differences in species composition, the number of species and individual biomass, the function of communities showed no distinct differences. According to effects of golf course discharge in each investigation site, benthic invertebrates in each site could be divided to three groups. A group that is similar to the Bangtae river (representing clean natural lotic system) included the control and reserve site of golf course A, upper stream of golf course B, and control site of golf course C which are unaffected by discharge from golf courses. Another group that is similar to the Gyoungan river (representing polluted urban lotic system)included discharge sites of golf courses D, E, F, H, and C1 which have been highly affected by contamination of organic matter. The third group, where the habitats of benthic species have been slowly contaminated, does not belong to both groups, which contain discharge sites of golf courses,A, B, C, and G, and might have chances of ecological restoration. It would be obvious that aquatic ecosystem has been deteriorated by cumulative effects of nutrient sources discharged from golf courses. The habitat deteroration would simplify species diversity and replace the species living in uncontaminated water with ones living in contaminated environment. The cause of deterioration may be continuous discharge of the organic material, such as chemical fertilizer and pesticide, from golf courses. The riverbed near the final discharge of the golf course was heavily covered with algae tolerant in organically contaminated water. The data of water quality showed some consistency with the above results, which are the effects of organic material. The undesirable effect on aquatic ecosystem by golf course operation, therefore, would be inevitable and irreversible if golf courses continue to be developed in valley water basin without specific measures. The effect on terrestrial ecosystem would be loss of wildlife habitats and nutrients, and fragmentation and hollow of ecosystem due to the elimination of vegetation. An improper restoration of slopes and a night game also reduce wildlife habitats around the golf course. The data of composition of insect species indicate that their habitat could be reduced approximately 20% after a golf course is developed. To avoid or reduce those undesirable effects, first of all, it needs to be cautious for a developer to select sites for golf courses. A good aquatic ecosystem with clean water source should not be disturbed. The area with well preserved vegetation needs to be conserved. Overcrowded golf courses should be avoided to prevent both discontinuity of terrestrial ecosystem and contamination of aquatic ecosystem. If a proper site for golf course development is decided, plans to reduce ecological damages during construction and operation should be incorporated in golf course design and managed during operation. Patches and buffer strips need to be placed as many as possible to maintain ecological functions in the golf course. They ought to be connected and built large enough to avoid edge effects on the central habitat of the patches. A reservior should be built to collect initial rainfall and to prevent from contaminating ponds and streams. An ecologically sustainable golf course can be developed when developers, designer, and golfers take care of ecosystem together. The owner's will is one of the most important factors to manage both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems because the level of ecological impact is various among golf courses, regardless of duration of golf course operation. One can enjoy beauty of landscape as well as mystery of natural ecosystem in an extensively managed land, such as a golf course.

Table Of Contents

제1장 서 론 1
1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 1

제2장 생태계 현황조사 3
1. 저서성무척추동물 현지조사 3
가. 조사대상 골프장 3
나. 조사방법 5
다. 저서성무척추동물 조사결과 및 분석 16
2. 수질분석 44
가. 수질조사지점 및 분석방법 44
가. 수질조사 분석결과 45
가. 저서성무척추동물 조사결과와 연계성 45
3. 식생현황조사 47
가. 조사지점 47
나. 조사방법 47
다. 식생현황조사결과 및 분석 48
4. 동물상 현황조사 50
가. 조사지점 50
나. 조사방법 51
다. 골프장 B의 동물상 조사결과 및 생태계 모형 51
라. Cup-trap 방법을 사용한 곤충상의 조사결과 55
5. 절개지의 훼손정도 및 복구현황 58
가. 조사지점 및 방법 58
나. 절개지의 훼손정도 및 복구현황 58

제3장 골프장 운영시 생태계에 미치는 영향 60
1. 육수생태계에 미치는 영향 60
가. 개체수 현존량의 변화 60
나. 청정수계지표종과 오염수계지표종의 변화 61
다. 서식지의 변화 61
라. 우점종과 우점도의 변화 61
마. 조사정점의 자연성 변화 62
2. 육상생태계에 미치는 영향 63
가. 수림의 제거로 인한 영향 63
나. 곤충상 서식지의 변동 64
다. 동물상 개체군의 변화 65
라. 대절토 사면 발생 65
마. 야간경기 영향 66

제4장 골프장 운영시 생태계에 미치는 영향의 저감방안 67
1. 육수생태계에 미치는 영향의 저감 67
가. 기존 수계의 자연성과 연결성을 보전 67
나. 수계를 따라 buffer zone 설치 67
다. 초기 우수 저류지를 설치 68
라. 토양의 산성화를 주기적으로 검사 68
마. 골프장 내와 최종방류구의 수질을 주기적으로 모니터링 68
바. 종합적인 저감방법(integrated pest management)을 조화롭게 사용 70
2. 육상생태계에 미치는 영향의 저감 70
가. 원형보존지역의 확보 70
나. 골프장의 밀집을 피함 70
다. 원형보존지역은 서로 연결하고 고립된 작은 면적은 지양 71
라. 주변식생과 조화된 절토사면의 복원 71
마. 야간경기 지양 71

제5장 생태계를 고려한 골프장 조성을 위한 제언 72
1. 골프장의 입지 선정시 생태계 측면에서 고려할 사항 72
가. 생태계의 연결성을 단절하지 않는다. 72
나. 식생이 양호한 지역은 피한다. 73
다. 지형의 경사가 심한 곳은 생태계의 훼손과 직접적으로 관련이 있으므로 피한다. 73
라. 골프장 내 원형보존지역은 주변의 산림이나 녹지공간과 연결되도록 설계한다. 73
마. 원형보존지역의 면적을 가능한 충분히 확보한다. 73
2. 골프장 설계시 생태계 측면에서 고려할 사항 74
3. 생태환경적 측면에서 골프장 입지의 문제점 76
가. 운영중 하천(계곡)생태계에 영향을 주는 골프장의 입지 76
나. 골프장이 밀집한 지역 주변은 골프장 입지로 부적절 78
다. 골프장 규모에 비해 입지의 capacity가 적은 경우 79
라. 환경을 고려하지 않은 골프장과 환경을 고려한 골프장의 입지 및 조성의 예 80

제6장 요약 및 결론 82
참고문헌 89
Abstract 92
< 부 록 > 94

Appears in Collections:
Reports(보고서) Policy Study(정책보고서)
Files in This Item:
Export
RIS (EndNote)
XLS (Excel)
XML

qrcode

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

Browse