몽골 금광산업환경관리시스템평가에 대한 한몽골 공동연구I

Title
몽골 금광산업환경관리시스템평가에 대한 한몽골 공동연구I
Authors
최재용
Co-Author
Mendbayar BADARCR; 이정호; 이영준; LEE; Erdene-Ochir
Issue Date
2004-12-31
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
정책보고서 : 2004-07
Page
vii, 107p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19157
Language
영어
Abstract
The mining industries such as the operation of mine and the extraction of precious metals have played a major industrial role in preparing funda-mental capital for national economic growth in developing countries. Same situation occurs in Mongolia. Gold mining industries in Mongolia generate 70% of total foreign currency. In spite of great economic impor-tance, it may causes negative impacts that lead to destruction of the natural environment and hardship of the local people adjacent to gold mine areas, especially for herders who lose natural pasture land and water resources. For a sustainable development of gold mining industry in Mongolia, national policy or regulation is indispensable to control the environmental problems. This research focuses on the environmental issues during gold mine de-velopment in Mongolia. It also suggests the best outline of environmental policy and management system for sustainable gold mine plan and opera-tion, joining the implementing environmental management system of abandoned metal mines in Korea and gold mining industries of Australia. A total of 11,000kg/year of pure gold is produced from more than 200 of both placer- and hard rock- type gold mines in Mongolia. Most of gold deposits are concentrated in central and southeastern parts of Mongolia. These gold deposits are highly associated with magmatic activities oc-curred from Cretaceous to Recent in geologic time scale. Two placer gold mines were investigated for their environmental status in this research. Shijir Alt Ltd. gold mine company is located near the Tuul River flood-plain area and is one of the largest placer gold mining companies in the Zamaar placer gold district of Central Mongolia. Large-scale mechanical separation of gold is performed with a bucket-line dredge and at least two water washing tools with pressurized water spraying. Due to heavy dredging of soil and water for gold extraction, the area near the gold mine company suffers from various environmental problems such as turbidity increase of river water, pastureland destruction, shortage of drinking and industrial water, and dust spray by used soil dumping. Gurvan Dokhon Ltd. gold mine company is located in the southeast of Ulaanbaatar and one of the major placer gold mines in the Dzuunmod region of Central Mongo-lia. Comparatively small-scale soil excavation for gold extraction is per-formed in this mine. Groundwater from three wells is used for soil wash-ing. The used soils after gold extraction are dumped to the place where the soils have been first excavated. Therefore, the area in which gold mining is ended is rapidly being rehabilitated. The environmental management systems (EMSs) of Korea and Australia for abandoned or operated metal mining areas were reviewed for suggest-ing better establishment of EMS in gold mining industry of Mongolia. In case of Korea, it is noticed that three relevant governmental authorities (Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, and Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry) have the responsibilities for in-vestigating, assessing, and promoting the restoration projects of aban-doned hard rock metal mine areas. All companies related to the mineral industry of Australia must follow the 12 components of EMS based on “Best Practice Environmental Management (BPEM) in Mining” in order to protect the environment by reducing the adverse impacts caused by min-ing activities. Environmental protection should incorporate with the concept of sus-tainable development to assess potential impacts of a proposed mining development. Governments, mining industry and relevant community organizations also have to work as partners to protect our environment for present and future generations. In mining industry, EMS principles must also be integrated through all phases of mine development from pre-exploration planning, through con-struction, operation, closure and post-mining monitoring and maintenance, because mining extraction and associated processing have the potential to cause severe environmental problems if projects are not properly planned and managed, judging from the case studies of Korea. Mining companies in Mongolia should include the environmental programs in the company strategy. An establishment of comprehensive environmental management system of placer gold mining in Mongolia needs to be essential, which will finally be set up in subsequent research in next year.

Table Of Contents

FOREWORD
ABSTRACT

Chapter 1. Introduction
1. Background
2. Objectives of Research

Chapter. 2. Socio-economic Setting of Mongolia
1. Mongolia in Transition
2. Socio-economic Trends
3. Government Administration

Chapter 3. Environmental Status of Gold Deposits in
Mongolia
1. Status of industrial importance of gold mining
industries in Mongolia
2. Geological features of gold deposits
A. Regional geology and mineral occurrences
of Mongolia
a. Geological and metallogenical outline of Mongolia
b. Gold occurrences in Mongolia
c. Main gold deposits in Mongolia
B. Hydrological characteristics near gold deposits
a. Overview of water resources
b. Regulatory and institutional analysis
3. Environmental status related to gold deposits
A. Environmental roles of relevant authorities for gold
mining industries
B. Main environmental issues in placer gold mining deposits
a. Mineral resource impact
b. Archeological and cultural impact
c. Nature conservation impact
d. Livestock impact
e. Farming impact
f. Forestry impact
g. Water general impact
h. Impact of heavy metals
i. Process reagents impact
j. Visual impact
k. Health impact by artisanal mining
C. Field studies in the placer gold deposits
a. Zamaar Placer Gold Mining
b. Placer gold deposits near South Khentii Metallogenic Province
4. Case studies on the environmental management
systems (EMSs) of developed countries
A. Cases of EMSs in abandoned metal mines in Korea
a. Background and status of the abandoned mines problems in Korea
b. Main pollution sources of abandoned mines
c. EMSs for the abandoned mine areas in Korea
d. Future improvement of Korea’s EMS in mining
B. Environmental Management System in Australia’s mining
industry
a. Best Practice Environmental Management in Mining (BPEM)
b. Environmental impacts in mining
c. Establishing Environmental Management System (EMS)
d. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
e. Fundamental principles for the mining sector

Chapter 4. Discussion and Summary
1. Summary of environmental problems in gold mining
in industry of Mongolia
2. Best EMS for gold mining industries in Mongolia

Reference

Appendix 1: Name and location of rivers polluted by
placer Mining

Appendix 2: State land classification changes 2002-2003

Appendix 3: Mongolian Sectoral Policies, Regulations
and Standards

Appendix 4: MINERALS LAW OF MONGOLIA

Appendix 5: Agreement of Collaborative Research

Abstract in Korean

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