의약물질의 환경위해성 관리방안 연구

Title
의약물질의 환경위해성 관리방안 연구
Other Titles
한강수계의 의약물질 농도예측 모형연구을 중심으로
Authors
박정임
Co-Author
김명현; 최경호; 김영희; 김민영
Issue Date
2007-12-28
Publisher
한국환경정책·평가연구원
Series/Report No.
연구보고서 : 2007-06
Page
178 p.
URI
http://repository.kei.re.kr/handle/2017.oak/19315
Language
영어
Keywords
Environmental risk assessment
Abstract
Abstract Pharmaceuticals are indispensable as they cure those who suffer from disease and their availability improves the quality of life. Veterinary medicines are also widely used to treat disease and improve the productivity of livestock farming. However, during their use, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals have the potential of being released into the environment. In recent years, the possible environmental (ecological) risk of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has become a matter of increasing public concern. Potential ecological effects from the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment have generally focused on the following two concerns: 1) the release of antibiotics into the environment increases the chance of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms and promotes the spread of resistant genes, and 2) when drugs affecting hormonal systems reach organisms in nature, it may result in a reproductive disturbance in the ecosystem. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is considered the best scientifically based approach for evaluating the potential effects of contaminants on communities and ecosystems. The process includes problem formulation, exposure assessment, effects assessment, and risk characterization. Accurate exposure assessment is a key element of ERA. However, exposure assessment has been hampered by the continuing difficulties and expense involved in measuring the low ppt concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the environment. In addition, real-time monitoring data provides only snapshots of contaminant concentrations. Thus, when faced with the task of assessing the environmental exposure of pharmaceuticals, the utilization of exposure models becomes essential. The first objective of this report is to apply computerized exposure models to assess the environmental concentration of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the Han River and the Kyungahn stream, a major branch of the Han River. PhATETM and SWMM are identified as appropriate exposure models for this study based on data availability, researchers’ previous experience with models, and accessibility to models. The models investigated in this study intend to provide rapid predictions regarding the potential environmental fate of a compound. In this study, model-predicted PECs are compared to field data that either have been published previously or were empirically measured during this study (Chapters 2, 3, and 4). A second objective of this study is to estimate the total environmental concentration of pharmaceuticals, from both human and animal use, by integrating the simulation results from PhATETM and SWMM. Although the introduction routes into the environment for veterinary pharmaceuticals are different from those for human use, both human and animal pharmaceuticals eventually end up reaching surface water. Therefore, estimating the environmental concentration of such pharmaceuticals based solely on either human consumption or animal consumption results in an underestimation of environmental exposure. In this study, a workable framework to estimate PECs for these dual-usage pharmaceuticals is suggested (Chapter 5). Finally, a third objective is to perform an environmental risk assessment (ERA) for selected pharmaceuticals. Hazard quotients (the ratio of EC to PNEC) based on PECs are compared to those based on MECs. This exercise will demonstrate the applicability of modeling approaches in the risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in the environment. The potential benefit of using molecular level biomarkers to assess pharmaceutical toxicity is also discussed and methods are presented (Chapter 6). In order to minimize the deposition of pharmaceuticals into the environment, potential risk management actions are suggested; disposal labeling on pharmaceutical products, discharge guidelines for pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, pretreatment of hospital wastewater, modification of wastewater treatment plant infrastructure or operating parameters, standardizing guidelines for the handling and disposal of unused medicine, and efficient dispensing practices and packaging (Chapter 7).

Table Of Contents

- Contents -
FOREWORD
Abstract
Acronym List
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Review and Background
1. Occurrence Studies of Pharmaceuticals in the Korean Aquatic Environment
2. Environmental Safety Regulations for Pharmaceuticals
2.1The European Union
2.2The United States
2.3Canada
2.4Australia
2.5Japan
3. Models for Predicting PECs of Pharmaceuticals
3.1Models for Predicting PECs of Human Pharmaceuticals
3.2Models for Predicting PECs of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals
3.3Selecting Models for This Study
Chapter 3. Exposure Simulation for Human Pharmaceuticals in the Han River with PhATETM
1. Constructing PhATETM for the Han River
1.1Watershed Data for the Han River
1.2Target Compounds and Collection of Compound-Specific Data

2. Modeling Human Pharmaceuticals in the Han River Watershed with PhATETM
3. Point-by-Point Comparisons of Model Data to Field Data
3.1Field Measurement Data
3.2Point-by-Point Comparisons
Chapter 4. Predicting Environmental Exposure of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals with SWMM model in the Kyungahn Stream
1. Introduction
2. Materials and Methods
2.1Study Area
2.2Selection of Target Pharmaceuticals
2.3Application of SWMM
3. Results and Discussion
3.1Simulation of Runoff Flowrate
3.2Simulation of Runoff Quality
4. Conclusions
Chapter 5. Environmental Exposure Modeling of Pharmaceuticals with the PhATETM-SWMM Combined Model in the Kyungahn Stream
1. Materials and Methods
1.1Target Pharmaceuticals
1.2Model Application
2. Results
2.1PhATETM model in the Kyungahn stream
2.2Integrated Concentration of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim
Chapter 6. Environmental Risk Assessment for Selected Pharmaceuticals
1. Introduction
2. Materials and Methods
2.1Daphnia Chronic Test
2.2Fish Test
2.3Risk Assessment
3. Results and Discussion
3.1Daphnia Test
3.2Fish Test
3.3Risk Assessment
4. Conclusions
Chapter 7. Summary and Conclusions
1. Summary of This Study
2. Suggested Potential Risk Management Actions
References
Appendix 1: PhATETM Input Data in the Han River
Appendix 2: SWMM Model Verification Data
Abstract in Korean

Appears in Collections:
Reports(보고서) Research Report(연구보고서)
Files in This Item:
Export
RIS (EndNote)
XLS (Excel)
XML

qrcode

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

Browse